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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AR: symptoms
occur late in disease.
SOBOE, fatigue, palpitations from hyperdynamic circulation, exertional angina
AR: signs
syndromes: Marfan's, Ank Spon or other seronegative arthropathy, Argyll-Robinson pupils
AR: pulse
collapsing/ water hammer pulse
wide pulse pressure
AR: Palpation
displaced, hyperkinetic apex beat. Diastolic thrill @ LSE on leaning forward/ full expiration
AR: Auscultation - HS
A2 may be soft
AR: murmur
decrescendo high pitched diastolic murmur, immediately after S2, maximal at 3rd/4th LICS
ESM often also due to associated AS
AR: severe
1. collapsing pulse
2. wide pulse pressure
3. long decresendo diastolic murmur
4. soft A2
5. Austin Flint murmur
6. evidence of LVF
AS: symptoms
1. exertional syncope
2. exertional angina (50% have no CAD)
3. exertional dyspnoea
AS: pulse
AS: palpation
hyperdynamic apex beat, may be slightly displaced
systolic thrill at base of heart
AS: Auscultation - HS
narrowly split or reversed S2
AS: Auscultation - murmur
harsh mid-systolic ejection murmur
often associated AR
AS: severe
1. plateau pulse
2. basal thrill
3. long murmur and late peak
4. S4
5. reversed S2 split
6. absent A2
7. LVF
MS: symptoms
dyspnoea, orthopnoea, PND, haemoptysis, ascites, oedema, fatigue
MS: signs
tachypnoea, mitral facies, peripheral cyanosis in severe disease
MS: pulse/ BP
normal/ reduced volume pulse
AF secondary to enlarged LA
prominant a wave if pulm HT
loss of a wave if in AF
MS: palpation
tapping apex beat
RV heave
palpable P2 if pulm HT
MS: Auscultation - HS
loud S1
loud P2 is pulm HT
opening snap
MS: Auscultation - murmur
low pitched rumbling diastolic murmur (steth bell, L lateral position)
MS: severe
1. small pulse pressure
2. soft S1
3. early opening snap
4. long diastolic murmur
5. diastolic thrill at the apex
MS: causes
1. rheumatic
2. congenital
MR: symptoms
MR: signs
mitral facies (rare)
MR: pulse
normal or sharp upstroke
AF is common
MR: palpation
1. apex beat displaced, diffuse and hyperdynamic
2. pansystolic thrill at apex
3. parasternal impulse from LA enlargement behind the RV
MR: auscultation - HS
1. soft or absent S1
2. LVS3
MR: auscultation - murmurs
pansystolic murmur maximal at apex and radiating to axilla
MR: severe
1. small volume pulse
2. enlarged LV
3. S3
4. soft S1
5. early A2
6. early diastolic rumble
7. signs of pulm HT
8. signs of LVF
MR: causes of chronic MR
1. rheumatic
2. MVP
3. papillary muscle dysfunction due to LVF or iscchaemia
4. CT disease - eg Marfan, RA, Ank Spon
5. congenital parachute valve
6. cardiomyopathy
MR: causes of acute MR
1. MI - papillary muscle
2. IE
3. trauma/ surgery
4. spontaneous