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WHAT ARE THE 2 OPERATIONS OF DEFENSE MECHANISMS?
1. OPERATE AT THE UNCONSCIOUS LEVEL.

2. DENIES OR DISTORTS REALITY.

WHAT ARE THE 2 OPERATIONS OF DEFENSE MECHANISMS?
HOW DOES FREUD VIEW MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR?
-UNCONSCIOUS and UNRESOLVED CONFLICTS DURING CHILDHOOD

FREUD'S VIEW OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS.
What are PARAPRAXES?
SLIPS OF THE TONGUE

What are PARAPRAXES?
ACCORDING TO ADLER WHAT MOTIVATES PEOPLE?
FUTURE GOALS

Adler's view on the things that motivate people.
What was ADLER'S VIEW OF PERSONALITY?
-We try to avoid INFERIORITY FEELINGS

-We STRIVE for SUPERIORITY

-Focus on a STYLE OF LIFE

Adler's view of personality.
What did ADLER say is a HEALTHY STYLE OF LIFE?
OPTIMISTIC GOALS, CONFIDENCE, AND HELPING OTHERS.

Adler's view of HEALTHY STYLE OF LIFE.
What was ADLER'S view of an UNHEALTHY STYLE OF LIFE?
SELF-CENTERDNESS,COMPETITIVENESS, STRIVING FOR PERSONAL POWER.

ADLER'S VIEW OF AN UNHEALTHY STYLE OF LIFE.
Name some of ADLER'S TECHNIQUES.
----INVESTIGATE LIFESTYLES---

Conduct a "LIFESTYLE INVESTIGATIONS," which consist of :

-FAMILY CONSTELLATIONS

-Identify FICTIONAL/HIDDEN goals

-Destroy "BASIC MISTAKES" (distorted beliefs)

ADLERIAN TECHNIQUES
How does JUNG view LIBIDO?
-GENERAL PSYCHIC ENERGY

THE LIBIDO ACCORDING TO JUNG
HOW DOES A JUNGian PSYCHOTHERAPIST VIEW THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY?
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT RESULTS FROM =


CONSCIOUS and UNCONSCIOUS FACTORS

JUNG'S VIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY
What are JUNG'S CONSCIOUS FACTORS?
-FOCUS ON EXTERNAL WORLD

-GOVERNED BY EGO

-INDIVIDUAL THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, SENSORY PERCEPTIONS, & MEMORIES.

JUNG'S CONSCIOUS FACTORS
What were JUNG'S UNCONSCIOUS FACTORS?
BOTH:

~A combination of the PERSONAL and COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

JUNG'S UNCONSIOUS FACTORS
Describe JUNG'S PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS.
~UNCONSCIOUS EXPERIENCES

JUNG'S VIEW OF THE PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS.
What does Jung's COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS consist of?
ARCHETYPES/"PRIMORDIAL IMAGES":

-SELF

-PERSONA/PUBLIC MASK

-SHADOW

-DARKSIDE OF PERSONALITY

-ANIMA AND ANIMAS

Jung's Collective Unconscious.
What are JUNG'S GOALS IN THERAPY?
~REBRIDGE PERSONAL & COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS

~FOCUS on the HERE & NOW

~+ ASPECTS OF INDIV

~INTERPRETATION

~DREAM INTERPRETATION

~TRANSFERENCES (A FORM OF PROJECTION)

~COUNTERTRANSFERENCES

What are Jung's Goals in Therapy?
What are JUNG's 4 BASIC PSYCHE FUNCTIONS?
1. THINK
2. FEEL
3. SENSE
4. INTUITING

Jung's Basic Psyche Functions
What are MAHLER'S (OBJECT RELATIONS) PHASES OF LIFE?
1. NORMAL AUTISM

(oblivious to external environ)

2. NORMAL SYMBIOSIS

(fused w/ mother)

3. SEPARATION-INDIVIDUATION

(steps toward separation, conflict bet indep and dep, then @ 3YO, OBJECT CONSTANCY or sense of self)

MAHLER'S PHASES OF LIFE
How does Oject Relations theory view OBJECT SEEKING?
A BASIC INBORN DRIVE

A definition of OBJECT SEEKING accord to Object Relations Theory.
What are the therapist behaviors in OBJECT RELATIONS theory? GOALS?
-SUPPORTIVE

-Develop ACCEPTANCE

-Help patient relate to others in MEANINGFUL and REALISTIC ways.

BELIEVES THE INDIVIDUAL CAN FALL BACK ON HIS INTERNAL WORLD WHEN FACED WITH LOSS, ABANDONEMENT, SEPARATION, FAILURE, AND LONELINESS.

How an OBJECT RELATIONS THERAPIST WORKS.
What is the emphasis of EXISTENTIAL THERAPY?
-FOCUS ON:

DEPERSONALIZATION
ISOLATION
LONELINESS

-People are in a CONSTANT STATE of BECOMING (TO EXIST).

~PARADOXICAL INTENTION

The focus of EXISTENTIAL THERAPY.
How do EXISTENTIALIST VIEW MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR?
A NATURAL PART OF HUMAN CONDITION.

EXISTENTIALIST VIEW OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS.
Descrbe PARADOXICAL INTENTION according to EXISTENTIALIST'S.
DECREASING FEAR BY FOCUSING IN AN EXAGGERATED AND HUMOROUS WAY ON THE FEARED SITUATIONS.

EXISTENTIALIST DEF. OF PARADOXICAL INTENTION
How does REALITY THERAPY/GLASSER view Human Behavior?
-Are BEHAVIOR comes from WITHIN US, NOT from OUTSIDE/EXTERNAL FORCES.

-REALITY Therapists believe PPL can take control of their OWN lives.

REALITY THERAPY'S VIEW OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
What is the FOCUS OF REALITY THERAPY?
-YOU want a SUCCESS Identity not a FAILURE Identity.

-INDIVIDUAL MUST NOT INFRINGE ON THE RIGHT OF OTHERS.

-TRANSFERENCE IS NO GOOD IN THERAPY.

The FOCUS of REALITY THERAPY
For reality therapists, behavior is motivated primary by BIOLOGICAL and PSYCHOLOGICAL needs (e.g., needs for belongingness, power, and freedom). The ability to fulfill one's needs in a way that doesn't deprive others of the ability to do the same (i.e., in a responsible way) is the goal of therapy.
How does GESTALT/PERLS Therapy view a healthy individual?
Individuals are capable of being RESPONSIBLE for his/her own THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, & ACTIONS, & LIVING AS AN INTEGRATED WHOLE.

HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS ACCORDING TO GESTALT THEORY.
What is the goal of GESTALT THERAPY?
HELP INDIV INTEGRATE ASPECTS OF SELF TO BECOME UNIFIED WHOLE. GOAL, CONSCIOUS AWARENESS.

GESTALT THERAPY GOALS
What are GESTALT THERAPY TECHNIQUES?
Using the EMPTY CHAIR TECHNIQUE a GESTALTIST helps the client develop AWARENESS. GESTALTIST AVOID THE DSM-IV TR AND TRANSFERENCE.

GESTALT THERAPY TECHNIQUES
Name the 4 GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCES
1. INTROJECTION
2. PROJECTION
3. RETROFLECTION
4. CONFLUENCE

4 GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCES
What is INTROJECTION? (GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
SWALLOWING WHOLE CONCEPTS, W/O TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THEM. OVERLY COMPLIANT.

What is INTROJECTION? (GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
What is PROJECTION?

(GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
DISOWNING ASPECTS OF SELF BY ASSIGNING THEM TO OTHER PEOPLE

What is PROJECTION?

(GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
What is RETROFLECTION?

(GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
DOING TO ONESELF WHAT ONE WANTS TO DO OTHERS. YOUR ANGRY AT OTHERS BUT DIRECT IT INWARD.

What is RETROFLECTION?

(GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
What is CONFLUENCE?

(GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
NO BOUNDARY BETWEEN ONESELF & ENVIRONMENT

What is CONFLUENCE?

(GESTALT BOUNDARY DISTURBANCE)
How does GESTALT VIEW TRANSFERENCE?
COUNTERPRODUCTIVE AND TRY TO HELP THE PERSON SEE THE DIFF BETWEEN "TRANSFERENCE FANTASY" AND REALITY.

GESTALT THEORY OF TRANSFERENCE
How does Gestalt view AWARENESS?
FULL UNDERSTANDING OF ONE'S THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, AND ACTIONS IN THE HERE AND NOW.

GESTALT'S VIEW OF AWARENESS
Define REACTANCE.
Reactance is not a paradoxical technique but refers to the tendency of people to DO THE OPPOSITE of what they are asked to do, especially when they feel their personal freedom is being threatened.

What is REACTANCE?
What is POSITIONING?
Positioning involves EXAGGERATING the severity of the symptom.

A DEFINITION OF POSITIONING.
What is PRESCRIPTION?
Prescription involves instructing the client to ENGAGE in the TARGET BEHAVIOR, usually in an exaggerated form (e.g., "nag your spouse for at least three hours each evening").

What is PRESCRIPTION?
What is RESTRAINING?
-PARADOXICAL TECNHIQUE

-TELL PERSON NOT TO TRY IF HE/SHE FEELS THEY CANNOT CHANGE.

What is RESTRAINING?
During Richard Stuart's OPERANT-INTERPERSONAL approach to marital therapy what is subterfuge, manipulation, and misinterpretation?
-Part of the 5th Stage of Stuart's 8 STAGE THERAPY APPROACH

-FOCUSES ON COMMUNICATION

-DESIGNED TO HELP PARTNERS send and receive HONEST, TIMELY, and CONSTRUCTIVE messages.

-In addition to decreasing negative exchanges, partners are taught POSITIVE ALTERNATIVES during this stage.

Stuart's operant-interpersonal approach, like other forms of behavioral marital therapy, focuses on communication skills.
What are the areas of focus in INTERPERSONAL THERAPY?
FOCUS ON 4 PROBLEM AREAS:

1. GRIEF

2. INTERPERSONAL ROLE DISPUTES

3. ROLE TRANSITIONS

4. INTERPERSONAL DEFICITS

What are the areas of focus in INTERPERSONAL THERAPY?
What are the TECHNIQUES OF INTERPERSONAL THERAPY?
~ENCOURAGEMENT OF AFFECT
~COMMUNICATION ANALYSIS
~MODELING
~ROLE PLAYING

GOAL: ESTABLISH WAYS OF INTERACTING

INTERPERSONAL THERAPY TECHNIQUES
What is the role of the Family Therapist?
CONSULTANT/COLLABORATER

THE FAMILY THERAPIST'S ROLE
What are the 3 questions or techniques FAMILY THERAPY uses?
1. MIRICLE QUESTION
2. EXCEPTION QUESTION
3. SCALING QUESTION


FAMILY THERAPY TECHNIQUES
A mnemonic for the TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL OF CHANGE.

PCP in the AM.
1. PRECONTEMPLATION
2. CONTEMPLATION
3. PREPARATION
4. ACTION
5. MAINTANENCE

PCP in the AM.
What is the focus of MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING?
STRESSES: THERAPIST EMPATHY, REFLECTIVE LISTENING, AND BEING NONCONFRONTIVE WITH CLIENT RESISTANCE.

The focus of MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING
Describe the CYBERNETICS' NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
<<<<<<<<DECREASING DEVIATION BY MAINTAINING THE STATUS QUO

CYBERNETICS' NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
Descirbe CYBERNETICS' POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
>>>>>>>INCREASING DEVIATION OR CHANGE THUS THEREBY DISRUPTING THE SYSTEM, PROMOTING CHANGE.

CYBERNETICS' POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
Describe the COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY's SYMMETRICAL COMMUNICATIONS
EQUALITY BETWEEN COMMUNICATORS (CAN LEAD TO COMPETITION)

COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY's SYMMETRICAL COMMUNICATIONS
Describe COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY'S COMPLEMENTARY COMMUNICATIONS
REFLECTS INEQUALITY AND MAXIMIZES DIFFERENCES BET COMMUNICATORS. 1 DOMINANT SPEAKER AND 1 WEAK SPEAKER.

COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY'S COMPLEMENTARY COMMUNICATIONS
Descirbe COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY's VIEW OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
DYSFUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION PATTERNS e.g. blaming, criticizing, mindreading, and overgeneralizing

COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY's VIEW OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
What are the techniques of COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY?
USING DIRECT TECH AND PARODOXICAL STRATEGIES TO ALTER INTERACTIONAL PATTERNS THAT MAINTAIN THE PRESENTING SX'S.

COMMUNICATION/INTERACTION FAMILY THERAPY TECHNIQUES
Define the FAMILY PROJECTION PROCESS according to EXTENDED FAMILY SYSTEMS THERAPY.
EMOTIONAL IMMATURE PARENTS MAKE EMOTIONALLY IMMATURE CHILDREN

FAMILY PROJECTION PROCESS
How is the family viewed in STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY (MINUCHIN)?
~ALL FAMILIES HAVE IMPLICIT STRUCTURE, DET HOW EACH RELATE

~POWER HIEARCHIES

~FAMILY SUBSYSTEMS

~BOUNDARIES (AMT OF CONTACT ALLOWED BY EACH FAMILY MEMBER)

STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY (MINUCHIN)VIEW OF THE FAMILY
What are PERMEABLE BOUNDARIES?
ENMESHED OR OVERLY DEPENDENT AND CLOSE

PERMEABLE BOUNDARIES
Descirbe RIGID BOUNDARIES according to STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY?
FAMILY MEMBERS ARE DISENGAGED/ISOLATED

RIGID BOUNDARIES
STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY: 3 CHRONIC BOUNDARY PROBLEMS OR RIGID TRIADS
1. DETOURING-

OVER PROTECTING OR BLAMING CHILD

2. STABLE COALITION-

GANGING UP AGAINST OTHER PARENT

3. TRIANGULATION-

"UNSTABLE COALITION"

3 CHRONIC BOUNDARY PROBLEMS OR RIGID TRIADS
What are the STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY TECHNIQUES?
1. JOINING- JOINING A FAMILY IN A POSITION OF LEADERSHIP

2. EVALUATING FAMILY STRUCTURE- TRANSACTIONAL PATTERNS

3. RESTRUCTURING THE FAMILY- ENACTMENT, ROLE-PLAY, REFRAMING, RELABLING BEHAVIORS

STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPIST CREATE STRESS TO UNBALANCE FAMILY'S HOMEOSTASIS

STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY TECHNIQUES
What is the area of focus in STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY)?
"HOW DOES COMMUNICATION CONTROL THE RELATIONSHIP"

LOOKS AT COMMUNICATION AND HOW IT IS USED TO INCREASE ONE'S CONTROL IN A RELATIONSHIP
How do STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY VIEW SYMPTOMS?
An INTERPERSONAL PHENOMENON or "A strategy for CONTROLLING a relationship when all other strategies have failed."

STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY VIEW SYMPTOMS
STRATEGIC FAMIILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY) GOALS
ALTERING the Family's TRANSACTIONS and ORGANIZATIONS decreases sx's

STRATEGIC FAMIILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY) GOALS
HOW DO STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPIST (JAY HALEY) VIEW INSIGHT?
COUNTERPRODUCTIVE BECAUSE IT INCREASES RESISTANCE.

INSIGHT as viewed by STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPIST
What are the 4 stages (S-P-I-G), in the 1st session, of STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY)?
1. SOCIAL STAGE
2. PROBLEM STAGE
3. INTERACTION STAGE
4. GOAL SETTING STAGE

The 4 stages (S-P-I-G), in the 1st session, of STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY)?
IN STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY), how does the THERAPIST'S WORK?
USING STRATEGIES HE/SHE ISSUES DIRECTIVES (TASKS)

CONSTANTLY ACTIVE

THE THERAPIST AT WORK IN STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY)
STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY (JAY HALEY) PARODOXICAL INTERVENTION
-RESTRAINING
-POSITIONING
-REFRAMING
-PRESCRIBING THE SX

PARODOXICAL INTERVENTION (STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY/JAY HALEY)
What causes MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS ACCORDING TO MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY?
-Maladaptive behaviors are the result of FIXED FAMILY PATTERNS, which DECREASES CREATIVITY

-ALL Family Systems have CIRCULAR PATTERNS of ACTION and REACTION
What are the goals in MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY?
-HELP PATIENTS UNDERSTAND

-HELP PATIENTS SEE THAT THEY HAVE CHOICES

WHAT ARE MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY GOALS?

pt: "I UNDERSTAND AND I LIKE MY CHOICES"
What are the MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY TECHNIQUES?
~THERAPEUTIC TEAM

~ONE-WAY MIRROR

~HYPOTHESIZING

~NEUTRALITY

~PARADOX

~CIRCULAR QUESTIONS, helping family members recognize differences in their perceptions.

MILAN SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY TECHNIQUES
What are the goals and techniques of OBJECT RELATIONS FAMILY THERAPY?
RESOLVE FAMILY INTROJECTS USING INTERPRETATION OF:

-TRANSFERENCES

-RESISTANCES

-FOSTERING INSIGHT

-use MULTIPLE TRANSFERENCES

OBJECT RELATIONS FAMILY THERAPY GOALS AND TECHNIQUES
WHAT ARE THE 3 STEPS A GROUP THERAPIST TRIES TO ACCOMPLISH?
<<<<3 FOLD>>>>

1. CREATION AND MAINTANENCE

2. CULTURE BINDING, identifying patterns and seeing if they should be changed.

3. ACTIVATION AND ILLUMINATION OF THE HERE AND NOW, telling members how he or she is affecting the group

3 STEPS OF GROUP THERAPY
HOW DO NONSEXIST THERAPY DIFFER FROM FEMINIST THERAPY?
Nonsexist therapist focuses on INDIVIDUAL FACTORS and is concerned with MODIFYING HOW PEOPLE BEHAVE.

NONSEXIST THERAPY
What are 4 TYPES OF MENTAL HEALTH CONSULTATION?
1. CLIENT-CENTERED CASE CONSULTATION, work with consultee who will help a clt, advise the consultee about the clt's txt or tell consultee what to do next about the clt

2. CONSULTEE-CENTERED CASE CONSULTATION, help consultee who will help a POP or a GROUP of clts

3. PROGRAM-CENTERED ADMINISTRATIVE CONSULTATION, work with administrator to decrease problems w/i an existing program

4. CONSULTEE-CENTERED ADMINISTRATIVE CONSULTATION, help administrative level ppl improve their professional functioning

4 TYPES OF MENTAL HEALTH CONSULTATION
Define HIGH CONTEXT COMMMUNICATION
~GROUNDED IN THE SITUATION, DEPENDS ON GROUP UNDERSTANDING, RELIES HEAVILY ON NONVERBAL CUES, HELPS UNIFY A CULTURE, SLOW TO CHANGE, AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND OTHER MINORITY GROUPS, GROUP IDENTIFICATION

HIGH CONTEXT COMMMUNICATION
Define LOW CONTEXT COMMUNICATION
~RELIES ON THE EXPLICIT, VERBAL PART OF THE MESSAGE, IT CHANGES RAPIDLY AND EASILY, MORE OF A EURO-AMERICAN OR ANGLOS CULTURE TYPE

LOW CONTEXT COMMUNICATION
Helms WHITE RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT Model (CDR-PIA):
~CONTACT~

~DISINTEGRATION~

~REINTEGRATION~

~PSEUDO-INDEPENDENCE~

~IMMERSION-EMERSION~

~AUTONOMY~

Helms WHITE RACIAL IDENTITY MODEL:CDR-PIA
HELMS WHITE RACIAL ID (CDR-PIA):

-CONTACT-
Racially UNAWARE about ONESELF as well as OTHERS

CDR-PIA = CONTACT
Helms White Racial ID (CDR-PIA):

DISINTEGRATION
-YOU BEGIN TO BE MORE "AWARE" of Racial DIFFERENCES

-LEADS TO CONFLICTS

CDR-PIA = DISINTEGRATION
Helms White Racial ID (CDR-PIA):

REINTEGRATION
Adopting RACISTS VIEWS of WHITE SUPERIORITY and view MINORITIES as inferior; MAY DENY RACISM

CDR-PIA = REINTEGRATION
Helms White Racial ID (CDR-PIA):

PSEUDO-INDEPENDENCE
QUESTION ONE'S RACIST VIEWS

CDR-PIA = PSEUDO-INDEPENDENCE
Helms White Racial ID (CDR-PIA):

IMMERSION-EMERSION
REPLACES RACIST MYTHS WITH ACCURATE INFORMATION; EXPLORES POSSIBILITY OF NON-RACIST WHITE IDENTITY

CDR-PIA = IMMERSION-EMERSION
Helms White Racial ID (CDR-PIA):

AUTONOMY
INTERNALIZES "WHITENESS" WITHOUT RACIST BELIEFS AND PRACTICES; VALUES CROSS-RACIAL INTERACTIONS

CDR-PIA = AUTONOMY
CROSS' BLACK RACIAL (NIGRESCENCE) DEVELOPMENT MODEL is related to?
Directly related to RACIAL OPPRESSION.

What is Cross' Black Racial (Nigrescence)Development Model related to?
Cross' BLACK RACIAL (NIGRESCENCE/P-E-IE-IC) DEVELOPMENT MODEL
Cross' Black Racial ID

P-E-IE-IC

PRE-ENCOUNTER, ENCOUNTER, IMMERSION-EMERSION, AND INTERNALIZATION-COMMITMENT

Cross' BLACK RACIAL (NIGRESCENCE/P-E-IE-IC) DEVELOPMENT MODEL
Cross' Black Racial ID:

PRE-ENCOUNTER
RACIAL IDENTITY HAS LOW SALIENCE; MAY HAVE INTERNALIZED RACIST NOTIONS ABOUT AFRICAN-AMERICANS

BLACK RACIAL ID = PRE-ENCOUNTER
Cross' Black Racial ID: ENCOUNTER
EVENT OR SERIES OF EVENTS LEADS TO CHANGE IN DIRECTION OF GREATER RACIAL/CULTURAL AWARENESS

Cross' Black Racial ID = ENCOUNTER
Cross' Black Racial ID: IMMERSION-EMERSION
TRANSITION STAGE IN WHICH OLD AND EMERGENT IDENTITIES STRUGGLE FOR DOMINANCE, IMERSED IN OWN AA ID, MAY HAVE ANTI-WHITE VIEWS

Cross' Black Racial ID = IMMERSION-EMERSION
Cross' Black Racial ID:

INTERNALIZATION-COMMITMENT
ADOPTION OF AN AFRICAN-AMERICAN WORLDVIEW; INTEREST IN SOCIAL CHANGE MAY EXHIBIT CULTURAL PARANOIA.

Cross' Black Racial ID = INTERNALIZATION-COMMITMENT
What was Sue's (1978) definition of WORLDVIEW?
-WORLDVIEW is How an individual perceives his/her relationship to NATURE, OTHER PEOPLE, etc.

-INVOLVES 2 DIMENSIONS

-LOCUS OF RESPONSIBILITY

-LOCUS OF CONTROL

Sue's (1978) WORLDVIEW
MINORITY (RACIAL/CULTURAL) ID MODEL: SUE, ADKINSON, & MORTEN

CDR-IA
C-ONFORMITY
D-OESN'T
R-EQUIRE
I-NTROSPECTION &
A-WARENESS

1. CONFORMITY, prefer dominant group, negative feelings toward own group
2. DISSONANCE, Berry's marginalization
3. RESISTANCE AND IMMERSION, prefer my own, reject dominant
4. INTROSPECTION, concerned about inflexible attitudes toward own and dominant group
5. SYNERGETIC ARTICULATION/INTEGRATIVE AWARENESS, pride in own heritage, accepts/rejects cultural values based on examination; multicultural perspective.

CDR-IA
Cross' Black Racial ID Model:
Cross' Black Racial ID:

P-REVENT
E-NEMY
l-DENTITY
I-NTERNALIZATION

Cross' Black Racial ID

*Preencounter
–Whites are seen as the ideal. BLACK denigrated or low salience for race.

*Encounter
–Interest in developing a BLACK identity, prefer therapist of their own race

*Immersion-emersion
–Struggle between old and emerging ideas about race

*Internalization-Commitment
–Adoption of BLACK world view

Cross' Black Racial ID Model
Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Minority Racial ID Model:
Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Minority Racial ID Model:

Conformity
Doesn't
Require
Introspection &
Awareness

MINORITY RACIAL ID

CDR-IA
Helms White Racial ID Model:
WHITE RACIAL ID MODEL

CDR-PIA
Berry's Categories of Acculturation:
I
Am
So
Marginalized

Berry's Categories of Acculturation
What is the focus in TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS?
the nature of the client's EGO STATE PATHOLOGY

THE FOCUS OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
What should a therapist do when an AFRICAN-AMERICAN CLIENT is EXHIBITING A "HEALTHY CULTURAL PARANOIA?"
Ridley recommends that therapists CONFRONT the meaning of the client's cultural paranoia by bringing his/her feelings into CONSCIOUS AWARENESS and help the client clarify when it is appropriate or inappropriate to self-disclose.
What is known about WOMEN WITH REPRESSED MEMORIES?
McNally et al. found that women with repressed memories scored higher on measures of ABSORPTION and DISASSOCIATION and reported MORE sx's of DEPRESSION and PTSD than did women with continuous memories of childhood abuse. (Women with continuous memories did not differ significantly from nonabused women on these measures.)
What is an Alloplastic Intervention?
CHANGING THE ENVIRONMENTS CONDITIONS, THAT LEAD TO PERSONAL DISTRESS

ALLOPLASTIC INTERVENTION
What is an Autoplastic Intervention?
An autoplastic intervention, changing the individual so he/she can adapt to the environment and its conditions.

AUTOPLASTIC INTERVENTION
What is "FAILURE OF COMPLIMENTARY"
Nathan Ackerman who utilizes a psychoanalytic approach to family therapy referred complimentarity as the HARMONY in SOCIAL ROLES in a family system.

FAILURE OF COMPLIMENTARY
FAMILY LOYALTY
Boszormenyi-Nagy's "intergenerational-contextual" family therapy.
What is PARALANGUAGE?
loudness of voice, silence, rate of speech, and other vocal cues

PARALANGUAGE
What is the STRONGEST BOND IN HISPANIC-AMERICAN FAMILIES?
PARENT-CHILD

THE STRONGEST BOND IN HISPANIC-AMERICAN FAMILIES
LOCUS OF CONTROL AND LOCUS OF RESPONSIBILITY IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
-Internal Locus of Control and Internal Locus of Responsibility

-emphasizes individualism, independence, and self-reliance

LOCUS OF CONTROL AND LOCUS OF RESPONSIBILITY IN THE US
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE COUNSELING?
-<<<<REDUCES DROPOUT RATES

->>>>INCREASES SELF-DISCLOSURE

-GREATER SATISFACTION WITH THERAPY

THE BENEFITS OF CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE COUNSELING
AN EXAMPLE OF PARALLELL PROCESS:
YOUR CLIENT IS BEING PASSIVE AGGRESSIVE WITH YOU, YOU BECOME PASSIVE AGGRESSIVE WITH YOUR SUPERVISOR/MENTOR

PARALLELL PROCESS
DEFINE INTERPRETATION FROM A FREUDIAN PERSPECTIVE
-APPLIED TO DREAMS, FREE ASSOCIATION, AND RESISTENCES

-MADE THROUGHOUT THERAPY

-MOST USEFUL WHEN IT ADDRESSES UNCONSCIOUS MATERIAL AT A LEVEL JUST BELOW THE SURFACE

INTERPRETATION FROM A FREUDIAN PERSPECTIVE
What are the CORE TARGETS in BEHAVIORAL MARITAL THERAPY?
-BEHAVIOR EXCHANGES

-COMMUNICATION

-PROBLEM SOLVING

CORE TARGETS IN BEHAVIORAL MARITAL THERAPY
When do RESISTANCES IN GROUP THERAPY occur?
-Usually in the EARLY MIDDLE STAGE

-UNDERMINES CHANGE, SHOULD BE BROUGHT OUT IN THE OPEN

RESISTANCES IN GROUP THERAPY
ACCORDING TO KAPLAN, WHAT IS THEME INTERFERENCE?
-A TYPE OF TRANSFERENCE

-WHEN A CONSULTEE'S UNRESOLVED CONFLICT WITH A CLIENT INTERFERES WITH HIS OR HER OBJECTIVITY OR PERFORMANCE WITH ANOTHER, SIMILAR CLIENT

THEME INTERFERENCE
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES STATS, WHO OVER UTILIZES AND WHO UNDERUTILIZES?
-AFRICAN-AMERICANS, OVERUTILIZE

-HISPANIC AND ASIAN-AMERICANS, UNDERUTILIZE
WHAT ARE POSITIVE CLIENT FACTORS THAT CORRELATE WITH GOOD THERAPY OUTCOMES?
1. INTELLIGENCE

2. EDUCATION LEVEL

3. EGO STRENGTH

4. ANXIETY TOLERANCE

5. ATTRACTIVENESS

6. CLIENT PARTICIPATION
PRIMARY TARGET OF ADVOCACY CONSULTATION?
~SOCIAL CHANGE

~Advocacy consultation, unlike other consultation modes, focuses on social systems rather than individuals or small groups. It is based on an "explicit value orientation that targets social change in the direction of power equalization"

THE PRIMARY TARGET OF ADVOCACY CONSULTATION
GROUP THERAPY: THE THERAPEUTIC FACTORS
-INTERPERSONAL INPUT
-CATHARSIS
-COHESIVENESS
-SELF-UNDERSTANDING