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100 Cards in this Set

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In Gestalt therapy, introjection refers to:
A boundary disturbance that involves assimilating information, beliefs, and values without really understanding them.
Empirical criterion keying is a method for:
Choosing items for a test on the basis of the items' ability to differentiate between groups (e.g. depressed/non-depresed) The MMPI was developed this way.
Describe the basic principles of "feminist therapy":
Assumes sexism and oppressive social roles underlie womens so-called pathology. Focuses on power differential between therapists and clients.
In the view of reality therapy, psychological problems are due to:
An inability to responsibly and adequately meet one's basic needs (survival, belonging, power, fun, and freedom)
A person with obsessive-compulsive neurosis is likely to use which defense mechanisms?
Reaction-formation, isolation of affect, and undoing.
According to Jung, people turn from an extroverted process to an introverted one at the age of:
Around 40, the midpoint of life.
As compared to Freud, the ego analysts (Klein, Fairbairn, Kernberg, Kohut, Mahler and Winnicott)placed greater emphasis on:
The ego's role in personality development.
Adler's concept of "masculine protest" refers to:
The idea that every child experiences feelings of inferiority which supply the motivation to grow, dominate, and be supportive.
Fritz Perl's Gestalt therapy and theory of personality emphasizes:
Boundary disturbances (introjection, deflection, and confluence)
Emic approach to study of a culture:
Studying a culture from the inside and seeing it as its members do
Accorind to Wren, a "culturally-encapsulated" therapist:
Defines the world in terms of his own cultural beliefs.
Define the miracle and scaling questions used by solution-focus therapists:
Miracle- asks client to imagine his problems were gone.
Scaling - asks family members to rate a situation to see how others perceive a problem
In Minuchin's Structural Theory, triangulation refers to:
When each parent attempts to have the child side with him or her
In Minuchin's Structural Theory, enmeshment refers to:
Results from very unclear boundaries that promote dependence
In Minuchin's Structural Theory, joining refers to:
A therapeutic technique used to blend in with family system
In Minuchin's Structural Theory, detouring refers to:
A type of boundry problem in which the spouses avoid tension between themselves by blaming or overprotecting their child.
What is Network Therapy and who is appropriate for?
Therapist acts as a catalyist who intiates the process and brings the clients friends, and family together to implement the process. Used for Native Americans.
Using a psychoanalytic approach, the sequence of interventions would be:
Confrontation, Clarification, Interpretation,
Working through.
Collaborative empiricism refers to:
According to Beck, the collaborative relationship between client and therapist, using a ration, logical aproach to examine the client's thoughts and assumptions
In the symmetrical pattern of communication..
there is equality between the two parties (which can result in competition and conflict)
In the complimentary pattern of communication..
there is inequality between the partners, with one assuming the dominant role
Research in the last 20 years on ethnic matching of client and therapist has shown:
Increased treatment length and decreased dropout rates, particluarly for Asians, and less so for blacks.
Selective abstraction refers to:
According to Beck, it refers to focusing on a detail that is taken out of context, at the expense of other information (doing poorly in one class = stupid)
In Minuchin's Structural Theory, coalition refers to:
when there is an aliiance (usually covert) between two family members against a third family member
According to psychotherapy outcome research, what percentage of therapy clinets shows measureable improvement?
75%
According to Yaalom, the most important criterion for selection into a group is:
motivation
Research on Asians show the best predictor of higher achievement is:
fear of failure
What do most psychotherapists report asthe primary source of stress from their work?
lack of therapeutic success
Research shows that new immigrants to the US, are most likely to experience symptoms of psychiatric disorders:
about one or two years after they arrive in the US (rlated to the "social displacement syndrome")
Research suggests that minority adolescents are more likely than whites to be in which ethnic identity stage?
Foreclosure
Experts recommend which apprach when working with black families?
Multisystems (includes extended family & ensures that social, political and societal factors are considered)
Acc. to Yalom, catharsis in group therapy
is helpful, primarily as a means of achieving other ends (facilitates group cohesviness, interpersonal learning)
Acc. to Beck, suicidal individuals are characteized as hopeless and
poor problem-solving skills
Weitz found in his research on therapy outcomes for children & adolescents:
therapy is more beneficial for adolescnts than children, especially among girls
In more severe cases of depression, Beck's cognitive therapy initialy focuses on:
Behavioral tasks to increase activity level
Biofeedback exerts its relaxing effect on which system?
parasympathetic nervous system
From the perspective of psychoanalytic theory, mania represents:
defese against depression
From a humanistic perspective. pathology is due to:
defenses that interfere with one's natural tendency toward personal growth
An elevate F score indicates
the testee is being careless, or deliberatly malingering
In Rational Emotive Therapy, what determines behavior?
Beliefs (and irrational beliefs determine maladaptive behaviors)
Stress inoculation involves:
1)Education about how maladptive responses interfre with proper coping
2)Better responses are taught (possibly through modeling)
3)Have person attempt to cope on own gradually
Multiple aptitude batteries such as the DAT, & GATB assess:
skills, abilities, or aptitudes, and allows a counselor to help a client choose an educational or vocational course of action
When applied to teaching children, gestalt psychology emphsizes:
learning patterns
Deficits on the Stroop test indicate
Loss of rsponse inhibition following frontol lobe damage
Sue (1991) found using a Glonal Asssessment Scale, less favorable treatment outcomes for which ethnic group?
African Americans
Therapies for the elderly:
Validation therapy:acknowledges feelings whether or not they are reality-based
Reminiscence Therapy: reviewing important life events with client
Reality Orientation: reversing/preventing cognitive impairments & maximizing remaining capabilities
In terms of worldview, Sue & Sue posit that minority groups are likely to exhibit an:
Internal locus of control
& External locus of responsibility
LaFromboise & Foster suggest incorporating multiculti training into counseling programs by:
Integrating cross-cultural content throughout the curricullum
Cognex & Aricept are used to treat Alzheimer's by:
increasing ACh levels
Individuals who rerieve memories under hypnosis, compared to non-hypnotized individuals:
Tend to have more confidence in their memories, but be less accurate in recalling memories
Reciprocity hypothesis:
people tend to like others who like them
Matching hypothesis
proposes that people of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other
In psychotherapy outcome research, factors that appear most responsible for lack of improvement are:
Client factors
Self instruction is most useful for:
Hyperactive/impulsive children (form of CBT which encourages focusing on their self statements & altering their self-defeating statements)
How to handle transference?
Analyst: Interpret
Gestalt: Challenge
Rogerian: Ignore
The Neo-Freudians emphasize:
social & cultural factors that influence personality
Jungian's consider the part of the personal & collective unconscious that is projected out to be the_____
transference
Individuals with antisocial personality are most influenced by:
Money
Family Therapist Leaders
Framo = object relations
Falloon = behavioral marital
Whitaker = humanistic
Kempler = Gestalt
Liberman = behavioral
Projective Identification
projecting feelings onto objects and then identifying with the object
Introjection (OR)
involves assimilation of parts of an object as part of oneself (usually good, to reduce anxiety, but could be bad parts to gain control over them)
Enculturation (Berry)
the acquisition of qualities necessary to function as a member of one's group, involves 3 types of culture transmission
1)Vertical - influence from parents
2)Horizontal -peers
3)Oblique - other adults, society
Research on ethnic use of mental health services has found:
Hispanic, Asians = underutilize
Blacks = overutilize
Acc. to Kohut, the roots of narcissism, lies in
the excessively unempathic responses of the child's self-object (mom)
In brief, psychodynamic therapy, postive transference is
useful for maximizing a client's motivation, thus important to establish
Techniques to use in counseling Mexican-Americans
Using a high-context xommunication style (relying on non-verbal comm., and shared meanings), relying on inner externalizations of problems, using metaphors & humour, using compliments
Age group with lowest prevalence of disorders
Older adults (65+)
According to Nancy Chodorow:
Girls are taught to remain attached to their mothers, while boys are taught to differentiate. Child rearing must be shared by parents
Hypnosis involves which 3 factors?
Absorption
Dissociation
Suggestibility
According to communications therapists (Satire, Haley & Bateson) communication has which 2 functions?
Report = content, informational aspect
Command = exlemfies relationship between the communicators
Age group that varies the most in terms of inteelctual abilities, physical abilities & personality characteristics
Older adults (65+)
What is responsible for keeping people in long-term relationships?
Similarity hypothesis
Key elements of self-instructional therapy are:
repetition, graded practice, & cognitive restructring
Focus of reality therapis is on helping the patient:
Examine his actions & values
Goal of Adlerian therapy:
help a patient replace a "mistaken style of life" with a healthier, more adaptive one
Neo-Freudians & their area of emphasis:
Horney = early relationships
Sullivan = relationships throught the lifespan
Fromm = effects of societal structures & dynamics
Sullivan's Modes of Cognitive Expereince
1)Protaxic - discrete, unconnected states (before language develops)
2)Parataxic - uses private symbols, causes one to see connections that don't really exist
3)Syntaxic - symbols that ahve shared meaning (emerges at end of first year)
Parataxic Distortions
Individual deals with others as if they were significant persons from his early life
Fromm's Character Styles
Receptive
Exploitive
Hoarding
Marketing
Productive (good one!)
Goal of Gestalt Therapy
Awareness & focusing on the here-and-now (uses, I-statements, empty chair, & dream analysis)
Concepts in Transactional Analysis
Ego States - (child, parent & adult)
Strokes - recogntion from others
Scripts - persons life plan
Life Position - One of 4 (I'm OK, you're OK)
Goal of Transactional Analysis
to alter maladaptive life positions, & life scripts & to integrate the 3 ego states
Double-Bind Communication
refers to the conflict created when a person receives two conflicting messages at diffeent levels (I love you, while being pushed off lap)
Metacommunication
the "command" level of communication (the implicit non-verbal message)
Bowenian Family Therapy (Extended Family Systems)
Viewed family dysfunction as intergenerational
Differentiation of family members is key
Sibling Position - important role
Interventions (Genograms, triangulation)
3 most important factors in group therapy according to Yalom:
1)Interpersonal learning
2)Catharsis
3)Cohesivness
Stages of Crisis Intervention
1)Formulation - identifying the crisis & persons reaction
2)Implementation - assessmen, setting tx goals, techniques
3)Termination - progress achieved is assessed
Psychasthenia on the MMPI measures
Neurotic manifestations other than hysteria (phobias, compulsions)
Validity Scales on the MMPI
L = Lie (defensive, endorsing socially-approved item)
K = Correction (high = defensive, low = low self-image)
F = Infrequency (intentioanly looking bad)
Howard's Phas Model of Psychotherapy Effectiveness
Remoralization = first few sessions, gies client hope
Remediation = 16 sessions, provides symptom relief
Rehabilitation = gradual improvement in overall functioning
Therapy with African-Americans
Should be problem-oriented & time limited
Multi-systems, ecostructural
Therapy with Hispanics
Patriarchal families, rigid sex roles
Prefer approach with prsonal conact & attention
Use active, goal-oriented appraoch
Therapy with Asian-Americans
Direct, sturcured, short-term approach
Place problem within work/school context
Therapy with Native-Americans
Non-directive, history-oriented, accepting, cooperative approach
According to RET, irrational beliefs are acquired through:
Natural, biological tendencies
IPT's 4 key problem areas:
1) Grief
2) IP role disputes
3) Role transition
4) IP deficits
Acc. to Sue & Zane, most important factor in culturally-sensitive therapuy is:
Using techniques that establish credibility
Acc. to Yalom, if group members are using a 'taking turns" pattern. one should:
Utilize mass interpretation
Jung differed from Freud in terms of:
being more optimistic of human nature, promoting more active exchange with therapist, & emphasizing the changes that occur in adulthood
OD interventions primarily concern:
Relationships