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80 Cards in this Set

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Aplasia-
failure of cell production
Apoptosis-
program cell death
Atrophy-
decrease in the size of an organ or tissue results from a decrease in the mass of preexisting cells
Autophagy-
process of ingestion of the cell own organelles that are senescent or damaged
bax-

bcl-2-
gene product that facilitate apoptosis

gene product that inhibits apoptosis
Caseous necrosis-
occurs as part of granulomatous inflammation,combines features of both coagulative and liquefactive necrosis, cheese-like consistency
Caspases-
is the name given to molecules that split proteins by acting between the aminoacids Cysteine and Aspartic acid.The caspases disrupt several essential molecules such as cytoplasmic cytoskeletal proteins, nuclear proteins and DNA-repair enzymes. The activation of caspases is now believed to signal the "Point of no Return"
Chaperones-
substances are produced by normal cells and participate in functions such as infolding and dissaggregation of proteins or in protein transport across the cell cytoplasm, i.e. hsp 60 and hsp 90. HSP participate in myocardial or brain infarcts to limit or prevent widespread necrosis.
Coagulation necrosis-
results due to cut off of blood supply, heart and kidney
Calcificication,
Pathologic calcification occurs in two forms: dystrophic calcification and metastatic calcification. In either, calcium salts and smaller amounts of iron, magnesium and other mineral salts accumulate as fine white granules or clumps which are often gritty. On H&E stains they have a basophilic, amorphous granular appearance
Councilman body
describes a morphologic change of involution and shrinkage of affected cells and cell fragments during apoptotis resulting in small round eosinophilic masses containing remnants
Fat necrosis
Occurs in two forms traumatic fat necrosis , severe injury due to high fat content
also enzymatic fat necrosis, due to hemorrhagic pancreatitis
fibrinoid necrosis
deposits of fibrin-like proteinaceous material in the arterial walls ,is often associated with immmune-mediated vascular damage
Fas ligand
cell surface receptor part of extrinsic pathway of initiation of apoptosis, this ligand signals a series of events that involve activation of caspases
Free radical
A free radical is a compound with a one or more unpaired electrons in an outer orbital. This fact makes free radicals quite unstable and provides them with greatly enhanced capacity to react with cellular macromolecules. Free radicals are generated by exogenous factors such as ionizing radiation, sunlight exposure, air pollutants, cigarette smoke, alcohol and chemicals and by endogenous reactions, mainly oxidative. Free radicals are of important biological significance: they occur especially as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen-centered radical species.
Gangrenous necrosis
type of ischemic coagulative necrosis freqeuntly in lower limb;when there is superimposed infection with a liquefactive component, the lesion is called "wet"
Gel electrophoresis of DNA
A cell that has undergone apoptosis will show laddering pattern of DNA on the gel and in necrosis of a cell with show a smear
Gluthathione peroxidase
enzyme found in the mitochondria that protects the cell against free radical damage
Hayflick theory of aging
the theory that cells have predetermined genetic program and they stop dividing and become senescent after about 50 doublings
Hemochromatosis
more extensive accumalation of hemosiderin, often within parenchymal cells, with accompanying tissue damage, scarring, and organ dysfunction
Hemosiderosis
accumulation of hemosiderin, primarily within macrophages, without associated tissue or organ damage
Heterophagy
Digestion within a cell of a substance taken in by phagocytosis from the cell's environment.
Hyperplasia
(hint: note differences from hypertrophy) an increase in cell number with resultant increase in organ size, which occurs only in cells capable of division -
Hypertrophy (definition and mechanisms)-
an increase in cell size again with an increase in organ size
Hypoxic injury-
i) loss of blood supply to an organ or system because of luminal obstruction of a blood vessel by atherosclerosis or by a blood clot, ii) inadequate blood oxygenation, as in certain cardio-respiratory diseases such as pulmonary emphysema and, iii) loss of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood as in anemia or in carbon monoxide intoxication
Kartagener syndrome
There is impaired motility of ciliary elements of the respiratory epithelium resulting in recurrent chronic infections such as sinusitis, bronchitis and bronchiectasis
Karyolysis-
fading of chromatin material
Karyorrhexis-
fragmentation of chromatin
Mallory bodies (alcoholic hyalin)-
an accumulation of prekeratin-containing intermediate filaments.
Metaplasia-
a change in cell differentiation
Necrosis -
necrosis is the sum of degradative and inflammatory reactions occurring after tissue death cause by injury: it occurs within living organisms
Pyknosis-
chromatin clumping and shrinking with increased basophilia
p53-
The p53-gene through its protein has been identified as activator of a pathway leading to mammalian cell apoptosis
Ubiquitin (hint: understand role in elimination of denatured proteins)-
appears to tag certain proteins destined to be destroyed by proteinases
what are the causes of caseous necrosis?
Tuberculosis, leprosy, and fungal infections
what is the origin of epitheloid cells?
Transformed macrophages
what is granulation tissue?
New small blood vessels, fibroblasts,and mononuclear cells in edematous extracellular matrix
what is a granuloma?
Circumscribed collection of epitheloid cells, usually surrounded by lymphocytes; it is a form of chronic inflammation
Population statistics
deals with characterizing a set of values in terms of a central value and the extent of the spread of all of the values
Precision test
is determined by conducting the test may timess on a single specimen. the mean and standard deviation of the set of results is calculated and precision is expressed as the coeffient of variation =CV= 100* SD/mean
PVN
predictive value of a negative(normal) test result
PVP
predictive value of a positive ( abnormal)test result
Eff
efficinecy of a result
leukocyte activation
are caused by chemotactic agents

1. degranulation and secretion of enzymes

2.activation of an oxidative burst

3. production of arachadonic acid metabolites

4.modulation of leukocyte adhesion molecules
suppurative inflammation
is manifested by presence of large amounts of pus consisting of neutrophils, necrotic cells, and edema fluid
thromboxane A2
synthesized by platelets from cyclo-oxygenase pathway; vasoconsticts and stimulates platelet aggregation
transudate
non-inflammatory edema fliud that results form altered intravascular hydrostatic or osmotic pressure;has low protein content
opsonins
a substance that promotes the phagocytosis of antigen by binding to them.They include:
IgG: specifically the Fc portion
C3b:
Collectins:binds to microbial cell wall sugar groups
Weibel-Palade bodies
In non-activated endothelial cells, P-selectin is found primarily in intracellular weibel-palade bodies.
exudates
edema fluid from increase in vascular permeability as a result of inflammation, high protein content,
Congenital heart defects in Down Syndrome
endocardial cushion defects commonly known as atrionventricular canal defects
Edwards Syndrome
Trisomy 18
Patau's syndrome
Trisomy 13, note the cleft lip and palate
Barr Body
describes as the sex chromatin, is adjacent to inner surface of nuclear membrane. The number of Barr bodies present in cell nuclei is one less than number of X chromosome. So females have two X chromosome, one barr body
Lyonization
inactivation early in development of the embryo, of all but one of the X chromosomes in each cell, depends on the Xist gene
Klinefelter's syndrome
most common chromosomal disorder associated with male hypogonadism and infertility. 47XXY
Klinefelter's syndrome features
-decreased testostrone production
- increased pituitary gonadotropins from loss of feedback inhibition and increased estrogen
what syndrome is the most important cause of primary amenorrhea?
Turner's syndrome
short stature
infertility
webbing of neck
coarctation of aorta
peripheral lymphedema
horseshoe kidney(two fused together)
Turner's syndrome
fetal hydrops
seen in Turner's syndrome, body cavities are filled with fluid
XYY Syndrome
tend to be tall, with severe acne, mildly retarded, aggressive
XXX or Superfemale
may show mild retardation
fragile X- amplification of triplet repeat CGG
-due to defectiv gene FRM1
-affected males are severely retarded and have characteristic large testes (Macroorchidism)
Anticipation
-associated diseases get worse form generation to generation as amplification continues
Genomic Imprinting
refers to a difference in the expression of a gene defect depending on whether is transmitted from the father or mather
Uniparental disomy
-inheritancce of both chromosomes of a pair from one parent
hemorrhage
extravasation of blood due to rupture of blood vessels
subarachnoid hemorrhage
- bleeding into the subarachnoid space usually from bleeding of the bridging veins
petechiae
-hemorrhages in tissues less than 3mm in diameter
purpura
-hemorrhage in tissues more than 3mm but less than 10mm in diameter
ecchymoses
hemorrhage in tissues more than 10mm in diameter
hematoma
localized hemorrhage occurs within a tissueor organ
active hyperemia
-localized arteriolar dilation such as in exercise or blushing
passive congestion (passive hyperemia)
-caused by obstructed venous return or increased back pressure from congestive heart failure
acute passive congestion
-is passive congestion with rapid onset, such as seen in acute inflammation or sudden heart failure
chronic passive congestion
-due to prolonged venous outflow such as with chronic heart failure or narrowing of mitral valve
heart failure cells
-presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages called heart failure cells in the lung suggest that blood has been present for a few days and that congestion in chronic
thrombosis
-intravascular coagualation of blood, causing interruptuon of blood flow
- endothelial injury
-stasis or turbulence of blood flow
-blood hypercoagulablity
embolus
-intravascular mass carried away by the blood stream to a site remote from its origin
-may consist of blood clots, gas,amniotic fluid, fat, bone marrow fragments, microorganisms, tumor cells
saddle embolus
-obstructing the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery