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50 Cards in this Set

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Anterior Cerebral Artery supplies what areas of the brain with blood?
midline of the brain, supplying the legs of the homunculus.
Middle Cerebral Artery supplies what areas of the brain?
the majority of the lateral aspects of parietal, frontal and part of the temporal lobes.
The posterior cerebral artery supplies which aspects of the brain?
inferior aspects circumferentially.
injection of dye into the right subclavian artery will illuminate which arteries?
both the vertebral and carotid circulations
injection of dye into the left subclavian artery will illuminate which arteries
the left vertebral artery only.
if a patient presents with CNIII weakness, which arteries may have aneurysms pressing on the nerve?
posterior cerebral artery or the superior cerebellar artery.
from where do the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries originate?
from the vertebral arteries
from where do the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries originate?
from the basilar artery near the juncture of the vertebral arteries
from where do the superior cerebellar arteries originate?
from the basilar artery very near the posterior cerebral arteries
Describe the flow of CSF in the brain.
secreted by choroid plexus into Right and Left Lateral Ventricles --> through interventricular foramina into Third Ventricle --> through cerebral aqueduct into Fourth Ventricle --> through the Middle foramen of Magendie or either Lateral foramina of Luschka --> into subarachnoid space --> into superior sagittal sinus
which artery is generally involved in an epidural hemorrhage?
middle meningeal artery
which arteries supply the internal capsules?
anterior choroidal artery and striate arteries
when do sensory fibers have synapses?
just prior to crossing-over
what tract contains pain-temperature sensory nerves?
spinothalamic tract
when does the spinothalamic tract cross-over to the contralateral side?
at the level it enters the spinal cord through the ventral white rami
What tract in the spinal cord and brainstem carries proprioceptive and vibration sense fibers?
posterior columns in spinal cord and medial lemniscus in brainstem
where do the proprioceptive fibers cross-over to the contralateral side?
at the junction between the spinal cord and brain stem
What spinal tracts carry light touch fibers?
both spinothalamic tracts and posterior columns
what spinal tract carries fibers for unconscious stereognosis and proprioception?
spinocerebellar tract
at what level does the spinocerebellar tract cross-over to the contralateral side?
it doesn't cross. It remains ipsilateral
the superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles connect with which parts of the brainstem?
superior -> midbrain; middle -> pons; inferior -> medulla
what are the signs of an upper motor neuron lesion?
spastic paralysis, no muscle atrophy, no fasciculations, hyperreflexia, Babinski
what are the signs of a lower motor neuron lesion?
flaccid paralysis, significant atrophy, fasciculations and fibrillations, hyporeflexia
what are the symptoms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?
combination of upper and lower motor neuron signs. weakness, atrophy, fibrillations and fasciculations, combined with hyperreflexia
where are the lesions in ALS?
anterior horns and corticospinal tracts
where are the lesions in tertiary syphilis?
posterior columns, but may extend into posterior roots and root ganglia resulting in loss of proprioception and possibly loss of pain/temperature sense of lower extremities
what are the symptoms of pernicious anemia?
proprioceptive loss and upper motor neuron weakness
where are the lesions in pernicious anemia?
posterior columns and corticospinal tracts
where does polio create lesions in the spinal cord?
ventral horn cells
Where is the lesion in Guillain-Barre Syndrome?
peripheral nerves affecting both anterior and posterior nerve rootlets. Results in ipsilateral LMN paralysis and sensory loss
describe decorticate posturing
flexion of the wrist and elbow and extension of the ankle and knee
describe decerebrate posturing
extension of elbow, ankle, knee, and flexion of the wrist.
if a patient has bilateral pain/temperature loss and bilateral lower motor neuron paralysis at approximately the same levels, what is the diagnosis and where is the lesion?
Sphingomyelia; a degenerative disease of central brainstem or spinal cord. It affects crossing of pain-temperature fibers and may extend to the motor tracts, depending on shape and size
where is the lesion in a bilateral loss of sensation in hands or feet in a glove or stocking distribution?
peripheral neuropathy due to diabetes or alcohol... may be hysterical or organic
what causes Brown-Sequard syndrome? What are symptoms?
hemisection of cervical spinal cord --> results in loss of contralateral pain/temperature sensation and ipsilateral loss of motor function and proprioception
Function of CN I?
smells
Function of CN II?
sees
function of CN III, IV, VI?
moves eyes (CN III also constricts pupils and accommodates)
Function of CN V?
chews and feels front of head
Function of CN VII?
moves the face, tastes, salivates, cries
Function of CN VIII?
hears, regulates balance
Function of CN IX?
tastes, salivates, swallows, monitors carotid body and sinus
Function of CN X?
tastes, swallows, lifts palate, talks, communication to and from thoraco-abdominal viscera
Function of CN XI?
turns head, lifts shoulders
Function of CN XII?
moves tongue
what are the 5 purely motor cranial nerves?
CN III, IV, VI, XI, XII
What are the four mixed motor/sensory cranial nerves?
CN V, VII, IX, X
what nucleus holds the somatic motor components of CN IX and CN X?
nucleus ambiguous
what nucleus holds the visceral sensory component to CN VII, IX and X?
nucleus solitarius
what nucleus holds the visceral motor component of CN VII and IX?
salivatory nucleus