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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which type of bacteria has a cell wall/membrane?
Gram positive bacteria
What portion of a bacterial cell wall induces which immune cytokines?
lipotechoic acid --> TNF and IL-1
Which type of bacteria has an outer membrane?
Gram negative bacteria
What portion of the outer membrane induces which immune cytokiens?
Lipid A --> TNF and IL-1
Which bacterium has a capsule composed of D-glutamate?
B. anthracis
Name 5 gram-positive bacilli
Clostridium spp.
Corynebacterium spp.
Bacillus spp.
Listeria spp.
Mycobacterium spp.
Name 2 acid-fast bacteria
Mycobacterium spp.
Nocardia spp. (weakly)
Name 3 gram-negative spirochetes
Leptospira spp.
Borrelia spp.
Treponema spp.
What is the morphology of Neisseria spp?
Gram-negative cocci
What is the morphology of Legionella, and what special stain is used?
Gram-negatie bacillus

Silver stain
What is the morphology of Chlamydiae and what special stain is used?
Gram-negative pleiomorphic

Giemsa stain
What is the morphology of Rikettsiae?
Gram-negative pleiomorphic
What bacteria have no cell walls and sterols in their membranes?
Mycoplasma
What is special about the cell wall of Mycobacterium?
It contains mycolic acid and has a high lipid content
What bacteria Gram stain poorly?

These
Rascals
May
Microscopically
Lack
Color
Treponema (too thin)
Rickettsia (intracellular)
Mycobacteria (acid fast)
Mycoplasma
Legionella pneumophilia (intracellular)
Chlamydia (intracellular)
Name 4 bacteria visualized with Giemsa stain
Borrelia
Plasmodium
trypanosomes
Chlamydia
When is the PAS stain used?
To diagnose Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
What is stained by India Ink?
Cryptococcus neoformans
What is required to culture H. influenzae?
Chocolate agar
Factor V (NAD+)
Factor X (hematin)
What is required to culture N. gonorrhoeae?
Thayer-Martin/VPN media

V = vancomycin (anti-Gram-pos)
P = polymyxin (anti-Gram-neg)
N = nystatin (anti-fungal)
What is required to culture B. pertussis?
Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar
What does MacConkey's agar show?
Lactose fermenting enterics --> acid --> pink plate
What does E. coli look like on EMB agar?
blue-black colonies with metallic sheen
What are 4 oblicate aerobes?

Nagging
Pests
Must
Breathe
Nocardia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Bacillus
Where are P. aeruginosa infections observed?
burn wounds
nosocomial pneumonia
pneumonia in cystic fibrosis
Name 3 obligate anaerobes

Can't
Breathe
Air
Clostridium
Bacteroides
Actinomyces
Name 2 obligate intracellular bacteria
Rickettsia
Chlamydia
Name 8 facultatively intracellular bacteria

Some
Nasty
Bugs
May
Live
FacultativeLY
Salmonella
Neisseria
Brucella
Mycobacterium
Listeria
Fancisella
Legionella
Yersinia pestis
What is the quellung reaction?
Swelling of bacterial capsules when exposed to anti-capsular antisera
Name 6 encapsulated bacteria
Strep pneumoniae
Hemophilus influenzae type B
Neisseria meningitidus
Salmonella
Klebsiella
group B strep (S. agalactiae)
Name 6 catalase-positive bacteria

cats need SSPACE
Staph aureus
Serratia
Pseudomonas
Actinomyces
Candida
E. coli
Name 6 urease-positive bacteria
Proteus
Ureaplasma
Nocardia
Cryptococcus
H. pylori
Klebsiella
What is Protein A?
S. aureus virulence factor
Binds Fc region of Ig, preventing opsonization/phagocytosis
What bacteria have IgA protease?
S. pneumoniae
H. influenzae type B
Neisseria

allows colonization of respiratory epithelium
What is M protein
Virulence factor in group A strep (S. pyogenes)

prevents phagocytosis
What does diptheria toxin do?
Inactivates elongation factor (EF-2)
What produces exotoxin A and what does it do?
P. aeruginosa

inactivates elongation factor (EF-2)
What produces Shiga toxin and what does it do?
Shigella spp.

Inactivtes 60S ribosomes - cleaves rRNA

--> dysentery, HUS
What produces Shiga-like toxin and what does it do?
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (e.g. O157:H7)

Inactivates 60S ribosomes - cleaves rRNA

--> HUS
How does the pathogenesis of enterohemorrhagic E. coli differ from Shigella spp.?
Shigella spp. invade host cells; EHEC do not
What two toxins does enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) produce?
Heat labile toxin: increases cAMP and Cl secretion --> fluid loss

Heat-stable toxin: increases cGMP --> lowered NaCl reabsorption --> fluid loss
What type of toxin and effect is produces by Yersinia enterocolitica?
Heat-stable toxin --> increased cGMP --> decreased NaCl reabsorption --> fluid loss

cell invasion --> bloody diarrhea, dysentery
What toxin is produced by Bacillus anthracis?
Edema factor: mimics adenylate cyclase --> increased cAMP

--> edematous black eschar borders in cutaneous anthrax
How does cholera toxin work?
overactivates adenylate cyclase with permanent Gs activation --> increased cAMP and Cl secretion --> fluid loss ("rice water diarrhea")