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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the function of the nervous system?
To control the functions of the body.
What are the divisions of the nervous system?
Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous sytem (PNS)
What is the structure of the external CNS?
Brain
Spinal cord
What is the structure of the PNS?
Cranial nerves
Spinal nerves
Ganglia
What structures protect the CNS?
Meninges (membranes) suspended in cerebrospinal fluid and encapsulated by the skull and the vertabrae.
What is the structure and function of a neuron?
Contain multiple short dendrites that transmit impulses to the cell and one long axon that transmists the impuse away from the cell.
What is the structure of the internal CNS?
Gray matter
White matter
What is the structure of gray matter, white matter?
CNS nerve cells embedded in neuroglia.
CNS nerve fibers (axons) embedded in neuroglia.
What structures protect the PNS?
Thin fibrous sheaths, therefore, relatively unprotected.
What types of structures protect the spinal cord.
Meninges including dura mater (external), arachnoid mater (middle), pia mater (internal).
Cerebrospinal fluid
Vertebrae
What is the perpendicular structure of the spinal cord?
Begins at the foramen magnum of the skull as the medulla oblongata-ends as the conus medullaris in the lumbar section (L2,L3)
What is horizontal structure of the spinal cord?
Rootlets that combine into 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Contain anterior (motor) roots and posterior (sensory) roots with a posterior root ganglion.
What is the internal structure of the spinal cord?
Inner core of gray matter with an H-shaped pillar and a central canal.
Outer core of white matter.
How is the gray matter divided in the spinal cord?
Anterior gray column and posterior gray column on the outside of the H pillar. Internal to the H pillar is the gray commisure and central canal.
What is the external structure of the brain?
Enclosed in meninges including pia mater (interior), arachnoid mater (middle), dura mater (exterior), and the craium/skull.
How is the brain divided?
Hindbrain (inferior)
Midbrain
Forebrain
How is the hindbrain divided?
"Transversely"
Medulla oblongata
Pons
Cerebellum (superior)
How is the forebrain divided?
"Sagitally"
Diencephalon (between brain)
Cerebrum
What is the structure and function of the medulla oblongata?
Conical in shape and connects the pons (superiorly) and the spinal cord (inferiorly). Contains many neurons (nuclei) with ascending and descending fibers.
What is the structure and function of the Pons?
Connects the midbrain (inferiorly) and the medulla oblongata (superiorly). Contains ascending, descending, and transverse fibers connecting the cerebellar hemispheres.
What is the external structure of the cerebellum?
Within the poserior cranial fossa, posterior to the pons and medulla oblongata. Connected to the midbrain and hindbrain by cerebellar pefuncles (superior, middle, inferior). Two lateral hemispheres connected by the vermis.
What is the surface and internal structure of the cerebellum?
Composed of gray matter within folds (folia) of the cortex.
What is the structure of the midbrain?
A narrow part of the brain that connects the forebrain to the hindbrain.
What are the location and function of the nerve cell groups within the anterior gray columns?
efferent that innervate skeletal muscles are divided into medial group (trunk), central group (cervical, lumbosacral, and lateral (limbs).
What are the location and the function of the nerve cell groups within the posterior gray columns?
Substantia gletinosa
Nucleus proprius
Nucleus dorsalis
Visceral afferent nucleus
What is the structure and function of the substantia gletinosa group?
Afferent fibers substantia gletinosa apex of the posterior gray column, recieves information of pain, temperature, touch.
What is the structure and function of the nucleus porprius group?
Afferent fibers anterior to sybstantia in the posterior gray column, recieve signals from posterior white column in the form of position, movement, vibration, 2-point discrimination information
What is the structure and funciton of the nucleus dorsalis group?
Afferent fibers in the base of the posterior gray column, recieve proprioceptive information.
What is the structure and function of the visceral afferent nucleus?
Afferent nerve cells lateral to nucleus dorsalis recieves visceral information.
What is the structue and function of lateral gray columns?
Extends from the T1-L2/3 and include preganglionic sympathetic fibers.
What is the location and function of the central canal?
A canal that hold cereberal spinal fluid. Located in the center of the H-shape gray matter, running from the medulla oblongata to the filum terminale.
How is the white matter in the spinal cord classified?
Arrangement of the fibers is based on ascending, descending, and intersegmental tracts.
What is the structure of the diencephalon?
Consists of dorsal thalamus and ventral hypothalamus.