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42 Cards in this Set

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mental status is a crude assessment of:
BRAINSTEM
(cerebral cortex and reticular activating center)
behavior relates to:
FOREBRAIN function
posture reflects function of what 3 things:
1. general proprioceptive system
2. vestibular system (special proprioception)
3. cerebellum
continuous head tilt to one side suggests:
vestibular disease
Abnormal head coordination, bobbing, and tremors result from:
cerebellar dysfunction
6 signs of vestibular disease
Vestibular Clinical Signs

1. Head tilt - ipsilateral
2. Leaning/falling/tilting - ipsilateral
3. Ataxia
4. Vomiting and salivation -usually more prominent in peripheral disease
5. Nystagmus - labelled according to fast phase that is away from lesion
6. Strabismus - ipsilateral
Abnormal posture of the trunk may be caused by:
abnormalities of the spine or altered muscle tone from spinal cord or brain lesions
Symmetrical trunkal ataxia is associated with
cerebellar lesions
Does maintenance of gait in quadrupeds require control from the cerebral cortex?
No.
Limbs are maintained in extension for supporting weight by what?
spinal cord reflexes
Gait is initiated where?
brainstem
Stepping movement signals are transmitted by what?
spinal cord
Do lesions in the forebrain abolish gait?
No.
True or false: Lesions in the brainstem cause paresis or paralysis.
TRUE
Most brainstem lesions cause paresis/paralysis that is ____________ (ipsilateral or contralateral), but rostral brainstem lesions may be seen ___________.
ipsilateral

contralateral
Ataxia can be a sign of what 3 things?
1. general proprioceptive dysfunction (peripheral nerve and spinal cord pathways)
2. vestibular disease, or
3. cerebellar lesions
The motor system is composed of what 2 primary segments?
1. upper motor neurons (UMN)
2. lower motor neurons (LMN)
The upper motor neuron system includes:
1. neurons in the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and
2. their axonal processes (motor long tracts) that synapse on motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord
The lower motor neurons are found where? (very general)
connecting the central nervous system with muscles
The UMN system is responsible for what?
voluntary movement
What are motor long tracts?
the axonal processes of upper motor neurons that synapse on motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord
What are the most important lower motor neurons?
cranial nerves, brachial plexus, and pelvic plexus
Define monoparesis.
paresis of one limb
Define paraparesis.
paresis of both pelvic limbs
Define tetraparesis/quadraparesis.
paresis of all limbs
Define hemiparesis.
paresis of limbs on one side
Ataxia is a sensory sign that results from one of what 3 things?
1. proprioceptive dysfunction
2. cerebellar dysfunction, or
3. vestibular dysfunction
Define proprioception.
sense of position
The general proprioceptive system is composed of what 3 components?
1. receptors in joints, tendons and muscles (proproceptors),
2. axons connected to neurons located in the dorsal root ganglion, and
3. axonal processes located in long tracts of the spinal cord and brainstem
Do cerebellar lesions cause paresis?
NO.
Paresis in vestibular disease indicates what?
that it's central vestibular disease
Define dermatomes.
the area of skin innervated by a pair of spinal nerves
What does the palpebral reflex check?
sensory component is the trigeminal nerve (V)
motor component is the facial nerve (VII)
Jaw tone assesses what?
Cranial nerve 5 (motor to muscles of mastication)
Tongue placement and movement assesses what?
CN 12 – hypoglossal
Gag reflex assesses what?
CN 9 (glossopharyngeal) and CN 10 (vagus)
The clinical sign dysphagia may indicate what?
Disorders of CN 9 (glossopharyngeal) and CN 10 (vagus) with their origins in the caudal medulla
List the cranial nerves in order.
I Olfactory
II Optic
III Oculomotor
IV Trochlear
V Trigeminal
VI Abducent
VII Facial
VIII Acoustic (Vestibulocochlear)
IX Glossopharyngeal
X Vagus
XI Spinal Accessory
XII Hypoglossal
List the cranial nerves in order.
List the cranial nerves in order.
List the cranial nerves and state the function of each.
Label the diagram with the following terms: cerebral hemisphere (cerebrum), midbrain, medulla, cerebellum.