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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the structure of bone?
Calcified connective tissue consiting of osteocytes in a matrix of ground substance and collagen fibers.
What do bones store?
Reservoir for clacium and phosphorous, used by muscles to produce joint movement.
What types of internal tissue can be found in bone?
Marrow, the site of blood cell formation.
Red bone marrow (child)
Yellow bone marrow (adult)
What are the anatomical terms related to planes?
Coronal plane
Horizontal or transverse plane
Medial sagittal plane
What are the anatomical terms related to position?
Superior - Inferior
Anterior - Posterior
Medial - Lateral
Proximal - Distal
Palmar - Dorsal
What are the anatomical terms related to movement?
Pronation - Supination
Adduction - Abduction
What is compact bone?
Dense tubular bodies of long bones, located in the shaft and heads, with a solid structure for support.
What is cancellous bone?
Lattice of spicules pulled with vascular bone marrow, can be red (highly vascular) or yellow (stimulated).
What type of bone marrow is commonly found in infants, adults?
Red bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow
What is the periostum?
The dense fibrous tissue on all external bone surfaces, it is continuous and connective except in synovial joints.
What are the types of bones?
What is the structure of long bones?
Bones with a shaft (diaphysis) compact bone enclosing a marrow caity, a metaphysis growth plate, and two ends (epiphysis) composed of spongy bone and articular ends.
What are some examples of long bones?
Limbs (tibia, fibula, femur, ulna, radius, humerus)
What is the structure of short bones?
Spongy and marrow bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone.
What are some examples of short bones?
Carpal and tarsal bones (cuboid shaped)
What is the structure of a flat bone?
Consist of two layers of compact bone enclosing spongy bone and a marrow space. Contain articular surfaces with fibrocartilage.
What are some examples of flat bones?
Ribs, sternum, scapulae, vault of the skull
What is the structure of an irregular bone?
Contain spongy bone within a layer of compact bone.
What are some examples of irregular bones?
Vertabrae, coxa, skull
What is the structure of a pneumatic bone?
Contain air spaces in place of marrow cavities, to form nasal cavities and resonating chambers.
What are some examples of pneumatic bones?
Frontal nasal cavity
What are fibrous joints? (examples)
Articular surfaces joined by fibrous tissue in sutues or syndesmoses, with low elasticity and minimal movement. (skull)
What are cartilaginous joints, types? (examples)
Joints with mild elasticity and litte movement.
Primary-joined by hyaline cartilage (1st rib and manubrium)
Secondary-articular surfaces with hyaline cartilage joined by fibrocartilage (vertebral joints)
What are synovial joints, types? (examples)
Joints with high elasticity with sliding apposed articular surfaces.
Ball + Socket
What are hinge joints? (examples)
Joints with flexion + extension(knee, elbow)
What are pivot joints? (examples)
Joints with rotation of a body (radio-ulnar)
What are condyloid joints? (examples)
Joints with 2 convex w/ 2 concave surfaces (knuckles)
What are ellipsoid joints? (examples)
Joints with convex + concave surfaces = flex, ext, ad, ab = rotate(wrist)
What are saddle joints? (examples)
Joints with reciprocally concavoconvex surfaces (thumb)
What are ball + socket joints? (examples)
Joints with free movement (shoulder, hip)
What are plane joints? (examples)
Joints with apposed articular surfaces (axis, atlas)
What are bursae?
Lubricating fibrous sacs for tendons.
What is the circulatory system, and what are the organs of the system?
To transport materials between the external environment and the body.
Lymphatic vessels
What are the types of circulation, and what is their directional flow?
Pulmonary (right ventricle-pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonaryveins-left atrium)
Systemic (left ventricle-aorta-body-superior + inferior vena cava-right atrium)
What is the path of fetal circulation?
Oxygenated blood is carried in placenta to the fetus-umbilical cord-fetal liver-interatria foramen-fetus' body.
What is the structure and function of the heart?
The hollow, muscular, 4 chambaered organ that pumps blood.
How is the heart regulated?
By the autonomica system's effect on the sunoatrial node.
What are blood vessels, types?
Carry oxygenated + deoxygenated blood
Transport wastes to kidney, intestines, lungs, and skin
Transport nutrients + hormones to target cells
What is the structure and function of arteries? (examples)
Vessels with thick strong walls to accomodate pressure for carrying blood away from the heart.
What is the structure and function of veins? (examples)
Contain valves that prevent a reflux of blood while moving blood towards the heart.
What is the structure and function of cappilaries? (absences)
Contain endothelium + basement membranes that connect arterioles + veins. Are the site for exchange of gas, nutrients, and wastes.
What is the structure and function of sinusoids?
Wider and more irregular cappilaries with walls of phagocytic cells, found primarily in liver, spleen and red bone marrow.
What are the auditory ossicles?
Bones of the middle ear that transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane they include the malleus, incus, and stapes
What is the structure and connection of the malleus?
An auditory ossicle the "hammer" the largest process, connected to the anterior wall of the tympanic cavity (ligament) and the tympanic membrane.
What is the structure and connection of the uncus?
The most medial auditory ossicle that connects the malleus and the staples by the long process, and attaches to the cavity by a ligament from the short process.
What is the structure and connection of the stapes?
An auditory ossicle in the shape of a "saddle" that attaches to the margin of the fenestra vestibuli and the incus.
Where can the auditory tube be found and what is it's structue?
A canal in the middle ear that equalizes air pressure in the tympanic cavity and the nasal pharanx.
How do the auditory ossicles move sound waves from the tympanic membrane?
Handle of the malleus moves with membrane medially-the body of the malleus moves with the body of the incus laterally-the long process of the incus moves medially with the stapes, pushing on the bestibuli
What is the function of the bony labyrinth?
An inner ear vestibule that communicates with the conclea anteriorly and the semicircular canals posteriorly.
What is the function of the membranous labyrinth?
Recieves recieves vibrations towards perilymph and lower scala tympani, and communicates with the scala vestibule. Disipates the waves at the round window.
How does the stapedius muscle interact?
Smallest skeletal muscle in the body that pulls the head of the stapes posteriorly (tilting the base). Protects the ear from loud noise/excessive ossilation of the stapes.
How does the tensor tympani muscle interact?
Attaches at the handle of the malleus drawing the tympanic membrane medially and tighter in response to loud noises (reducing vibration)
What is the structure of the membranous labyrinth?
"Membrane suspended in the perilymph of the the bony labyrinth in the innner ear.
What is the acoustic apparatus?
The cochlea of the innear ear housing the cochlear duct for auditory sense?
What is the vestibular apparatus?
Uticle, saccule, and the semicircular canals housing siemicircular ducts sensing equilibrium.
What is the structure of the bony labyrinth?
Vestibule communicates with the cochlea anteriorly and the 3 semicircular canals posteriorly.
What is the function of the lymphatic system?
Provides important immune mechanism for the body, and the metastasis of cancer cells.
What is the structure of lymphatic vessels?
One-way drainage towrd the heart and retirn ymph to the bloodsteam through the thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct.
What is the function of lymphatic vessels?
Absorb large proteins milecules and transport them into the bloodstream, carry lymphocytes into the bloodstream.
Where are lymphatic vessels not absent?
Brain, spinal cord, eyes, bone marrow, etc.
What is the structure of lymphatic cappilaries?
Begin sparsely then join to form large vessels.
What is the function of lymphatic cappilaries?
Absorb lymph from tissue spaces and transport it back into the venous system.
What are lacteals?
Lymphatic cappilaries in the willi of small intestine, where they absorb emulsified fat.
What is the structure of lymph nodes?
Organized collections of lymphatic tissue permeated by lymph channels.
What are the functions of lymph nodes?
Produce lymphocytes and plasma cells and filter the lymph. Trap bacteria in nodes of phagocytotic cells.
What is lymph?
Clear watery fluid collected from intracellular spaces.