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49 Cards in this Set

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bradygnathism
over bite- long nosed dogs
MAP
mean arterial pressure
What do you do for PCV's?
O2
alveolus
bony socket where tooth resides
sulcus depth?
cat= 0-1
dog-0-3
ph of saliva?
7.5
Primary protein responsible for oncotic pressure?
albumin
normal urine output?
1-2 ml/Kg/hr
How much blood does a gauze sponge hold?
3-5ml.
Order of TPR
Normal rates
RPT
resp= Dog 8-20, Cat 8-30
Pulse= Dog <25Kg 90-160
Dog >25Kg 70-100
Cat 150-210
Temp= 100-102: Hypo= <99
Hyper= >103
MM colors
pale= anemia, hypotension, hypothermia, pain
bright red= toxic phase of infection
yellow= icteric
muddy= septic
blue= cyanotic
brown= tylenol poisoning
CRT > 2sec indicates
hypotension
What are causes of pulmonary edema?
mitral stenosis or L ventricular failure
Heart murmers
Grade
1= can barely hear
2= audible but soft
3= low to mod intensity'
4= loud w/o thrill
5= loud w/ thrill
6= can hear off chest
What do crackles in the lungs indicate?
edema
What does a lack of sound in the lungs indicate?
consolidation, collapse, air or fluid in pleural space
pleural effusion=
increased fluid in pleural cavity, usu due to inflammation
pneumothorax=
air or gas in pleural cavity
What structures are normally palpated in the abdomen
sm intestines, colon, bladder, kidneys (cat)
Not normal= liver, spleen, pancreas, repro tract, prostate.
erythema=
pruritis=
red skin
itchy skin
dehydration
< 5%= undetectable
5-6= skin slightly doughy, little inelastic, tacky mm
6-8= skin inelastic, eyes slightly sunken
10-12= inc skin turgor, sunken eyes, dry mm, inc CRT
12-15= shock, imminent death
What can you feel on a rectal exam?
rectum, bony pelvis, prostate, anal sacs.
possible- uterus, vagina, urethra.
3 units of metric system
meter= length
liter= volume
gram= mass
micro=
1/1,000,000
7 parts of drug order
1. Name of patient
2. Name of drug
3. Doseage of drug
4. Route
5. Time/Frequency
6. Date and time order written
7. Signature of doctor
Six Patient Rights
1. Right patient
2. Drug- Check 3 times
3. dose
4. route
5. time
6. frequency
What is a solute
substance being dissolved or diluted
What is concentration
amt of solute dissolved in solvent
1:1000=

1:10,000=
1 Mg/ML

0.1 Mg/mL
Formula for mass, volume, concentration
C= M/V or V= M/C
How much of body weight is water?
How distributed?
60%
30%= interstitial
10%=intravascular
60%= intracellular
Route of IV fluid

Fluid losses
IV- Interstitiial- Intracellular

Interstitial-Intravascular- Intracellular
What is an electrolyte?
solute that breaks down into + or - particles, ie ions.
Most abundant cation in ECF

anion
sodium

chloride, magnesium
most abundant cation in ICF

anion
potassium, magnesium

phosphates and proteins
Diffusion=
passage of solute from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration
Osmosis=
passage of solvent from area of lesser concentration to one of greater concentration when seperated by a semi=permeable membrane.
Osmotic pressure=
the ability of a particle to attract water
Osmalality
The number of solute particles per Kg of solution, ie the osmotic pressure of the solution
Most effective osmoles
sodium, glucose
Starlings Law
Equilibrium exists at the capillary membrane when fluid leaving = fluid entering the circulation.
colloid=
a nondiffusable substance a solute suspended in solution, ie plasma proteins
hydrostatic
the pressure exerted by a stationary fluid
If vascular colloid osmotic pressure decreases then....
hypoproteinemia= fluid accumulates in interstitial spaces (edema) causes= liver disease, malnutrition
Functions of body water
Transport nutrients, electrolytes and O2 to cells
Excretion of waste
Regulation of body temp
Joint lubrication
Medium for food digestion
Sources of water
water drunk
water eaten
water from metabolism of food
water loss
urine
feces
sweat (horse)
respiration
vomit
Indicators for fluid therapy
Resuscitation for shock
Dehydration
Excessive fluid loss
Replace electrolytes, nutrients
Maintain open IV line for meds
Laboratory tests for dehydration
PCV, TPP, urine spec gravity
All will be increased.