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16 Cards in this Set

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What can cause a false positive result for protein on a reagent test strip?
highly alkaline urine
What is the renal threshold for glucose in:

a. dog
b. cat
c. cow
d. horse/calf
a. 180 mg/dl
b. 280 mg/dl
c. 100 mg/dl
d. 160 mg/dl
What ketones does a U/A reagent strip detect & not detect?
detects acetoacetate, less sensitive for acetone, does not detect beta-hydroxybutyrate (most common ketone in urine: 78%)
how can you differentiate the 3 causes of red/brown urine

a. hemoglobinuria
b. hematuria
c. myoglobinuria
a. -grossly discolored urine does NOT clear on centrifugation
-evidence of anemia & discolored plasma will be seen if d/t intravascular hemolysis
-ammonium sulfate precipitation test positive
b. -urine clears upon centrifugation (RBCs form pellet)
-RBCs on sediment exam
c. grossly discolored urine does not clear on centrifugation
-clinical &/or lab evidence of muscle dz present
-ammonium sulfate precipitation test negative
What is the significance of the following on a urine sediment exam?

a. RBCs
b. WBCs
c. squamous epi cells
d. transitional epi cells
a. normal urine has < 5/hpf
b. normal urine has < 5/hpf
c. represent contamination from genital tract/skin in a voided sample
d. come from bladder, proximal urethra, renal pelvis, or ureters
normal urine has < 5/hpf
↑ exfoliation indicates inflammation or neoplasia
excessive clumping, abnormal shape, &/or ↑ number may warrant cytologic evaluation for transitional cell carcinoma
What is the significance of the following on a urine sediment exam?

a. hyaline casts
b. granular casts
c. waxy casts
d. cellular casts
a. composed mostly of tubular mucoprotein
-a few/lpf can be normal
-↑ #: may indicate proteinuria or ↓ tubular flow
b. >1/lpf indicates tubular degeneration/necrosis
c. indicate prolonged renal stasis (prelude to anuria; poor px)
d. WBC: tubulointerstitial inflammation (rare), RBC: tubular hemorrhage (rare)
struvite crystals

a. urine pH
b. significance
a. alkaline to neutral
b. may be normal, assoc. w/ UTI, sterile struvite uroliths, or other lower urinary tract dz
calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals

a. urine pH
b. significance
a. acid, neutral, or slightly alkaline urine
b. may be normal, urolithiasis
calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals

a. significance
a. ethylene glycol toxicity
calcium carbonate crystals

a. urine pH
b. significance
a. alkaline to neutral
b. normal in horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, goats (contribute to turbidity of urine)
What is the significance of ammonium biurate or uric acid crystals?
normal in some Dalmatians, English Bulldogs, urate urolithiasis, liver dz (ex. PSS)
What is the significance of bilirubin crystals?
a few may be normal in highly concentrate dog urine, ↑ # associated w/ hyperbilirubinuria
What urine s.g. indicate questionable concentrating ability in:

a. dogs
b. cats
c. horses/cows
a. < 1.030
b. < 1.035
c. < 1.020-1.025
urine protein:urine creatinine ratio interpretration

a. < 1
b. 2-5
c. > 5
d. >10
e. > 20
a. normal
b. renal dz (likely tubular)
c. glomerular dz
d. glomerulonephritis
e. amyloidosis
fractional clearance of Na compared to creatinine
a. < 1%
b. > 1%
a. prerenal azotemia
b. renal failure
fractional clearance of PO4
a. > 15%
a. increased PTH