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51 Cards in this Set

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Definition of Acute Asthma
-reversible airflow obstruction associated w/ a state of inc. responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to many different stimuli
Extrinsic Asthma
-allergic or atopic
Intrinsic Asthma
-no obvious extrinsic cause
pathophysiology of asthma
-bronchospasm
-edema
-mucous production
-inc'd airway resistance
-hypoxemia, hypercarbia
-dec'd max expiratory flow rates
definition of pleural effusion
-Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
Exudative effusion
-abnormality of the pleura
-parapneumonia, malignancy, PE
-unilateral
-most commonly associated with bacterial pneumonia
Transudative effusion
-Imbalance of oncotic or hydrostatic pressure
-CHF, cirrhosis
-bilateral
-serous in appearance
-
Pleural fluid/Serum Protein ratio of effusions
-transudative: <0.5
-exudative: >0.5
Pleural fluid/serum LDH ration of effusions
-transudative: <0.6
-exudative: >0.6
Absolute LDH of effusions
-transudative: NL
-exudative: > 2/3
definition of PTX
-accumulation of air in the normally airless pleural space, between the lung and chest wall
Primary Spontaneous PTX
-NL young, healthy people w/o lung disease
-young, tall, thin, males
Secondary Spontaneous PTX
-Occurs as complication of underlying pulmonary disease - COPD- most common cause
- Necrotizing pulmonary Infx
Catemenial PTX
-uncommon
-recurs at menstrual period
- thought secondary to pleural and diaphragmatic endometriosis
Traumatic PTX
-penetrating and nonpenetrating trauma
Iatrogenic PTX
-most common
-Usually due to complications of CVP line access, thoracenthesis pleural Bx, mech
Tension PTX
-compromises ventilation by shifting mediastinal structures, impairing venous retain & cardiac output
- often occurs as complication of mech. vent. or other secondary PTX
- not common with primary PTX
T/F: Pneumonia is the 6th leading cause of death in the US
true
90% of bacterial cases are due to...
-pneumococcal pneumonia
Which pneumonia will you find a rust-colored sputum?
-strep pneumonia (pneumococcal)
Which pneumonia will you find patchy alveolar infiltrates on CXR?
-Haemophilis influenza
Which pneumonia is necrotizing lobar pneumonia with bulging minor fissure on CXR?
-Klebsiella
Which pneumonia is contracted through the airborne transmission heat exchange systems, resp. therapy devices, water sprays and NOT human to human contact?
-Leigonnella
What is the most common type of pneumonia?
-viral
definition of acute bronchitis
-Inflammation of the bronchial mucosa due to infection
What is the most common cause of acute bronchitis?
-virus
Name three bacterial causing factors of acute bronchitis
-Haemophilus influenza,
-Streptococcus pneumoniae,
-Moraxella catarrhalis
inspiration
-contraction of diaphragm (primary respiratory muscle) increases intrathoracic volume
exhalation
-passive process as diaphragm relaxes and elastic recoil restores resting volume
What is the primary factor that chemoreceptors notice?
-pCO2
generalized hypoxia over time results in...
-pulmonary HTN
FVC
-forced vital capacity
FEV1
-forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation
FEV1/FVC
-adjusts FEV1 to individual’s actual FVC
DLco2
-diffusion capacity of CO2, measurement of overall alveolar function
NL pO2
>60 (corresponds to 90% saturation)
NL pCO2
40
definition of COPD
-characterized by permanent obstruction of airflow
-smoking is the major cause
T/F: COPD is the 20th leading cause of death in the US
False: 4th
COPD pathophys
-Mucous hypersecretion
-Ciliary dysfunction
-Airflow limitation
-Pulmonary hyperinflation
-Gas exchange abnormalities
definition of emphysema
-permanent enlargement of alveolar ducts and sacs with destruction of their walls
definition of chronic bronchitis
-excessive secretion of mucous causing cough for at least 3 months in at least 2 consecutive years
Etiology of emphysema
-smoking causes inflammation
-surfactant deficiency
Vt
-500
IRV
-3100
ERV
-1200
RV
-1200
TLC
-6000
TLC = Vt + IRV + ERV + RV
or TLC = VC + RV
VC
-4800
VC= Vt + IRV + ERV
-should be 80% of TLC
IC
-3600
IC = Vt + IRV
FRC
-2400
FRC = ERV + RV