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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the principle of Electrochemistry
Coupling of electricity and chemical reaction
What is the principle of Electrophoresis
Separation of charged molecules moving under the influence of electric field
What is the principle of Spectrophotometry
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter
What is the principle of Chromatography
Separation of molecules due to interaction with chromatographic column
What is the principle of Mass Spec
Separation of charged molecules in magnetic field
What is the principle of Immunoassays
Reaction between analyte and antibody
What is the principle of Flow Cytometry
Cell counting and characterization by their light scattering and fluorescene
What is the principle of Genetic testing
Detection of specific genetic sequences
Define Sensitivity
Fraction of sick among those diagnosed as sick
Define Specifictiy
Fraction of healthy among those diagnosed as healthy
Define Positive Predicted Value
Odds of positive diagnosis being correct
Define Negative Predicted Value
Odds of negative diagnosis being correct
Explain Potentiometry
Electric potential between two electrodes at zero charge flow
Explain Voltammetry
Electric current depending on Voltage
Explain Coulometry
Total electric charge necessary to complete chemical reaction
Explain Conductometry
Electrical Conductivity
Explain what effects mobility in Electrophoresis
Electric charge carried by a molecule determines the electric force acting on it. Charge molecules move faster

Size and shape determines its mobility. Bigger goes slower
Describe DNA electrophoresis
uniformly charged DNA molecules run on agarose gel
Describe SDS-PAGE
Unfolded protein molecules run in the presence of SDS on polyacrylamide gel
Describe Isoelectrophoresis
Protein molecules run on a gel with pH gradient
Describe 2D electrophoresis
Protein molecules are separated first by their molecular weight and then by their isoelectric point
Describe Western Blot
Specific proteins are visualized by antibody staining
What are examples of Absorption Spectrophotometry
atomic and molecular absorption spectroscopy
What are examples of Emission Spectrophotometry
Flame spectroscopy, fluroescent spectroscopy
What are examples of Scatter Spectrophotometry
Turbidimetry, nephelometry
Explain the Beer-Lambert Law
A = a·c·l

a=extinction coefficient
c=anaylyte coefficient
l=optical path lentgth
Explain the equation for Transmittance
T I1/I0o x 100%
A= -log (I1/Io) = 2 - log10T=a·c·l
What is the principle of separation for Paper chromatography
Sample migrates on paper due to capillary action
What is the principle of separation for TLC
Sorbent is thin layer of gel applied to glass or plastic
What is the principle of separation for Ion-Pair Chromotography
Charged component is added to mobile phase
What is the principle of separation for Ion-Exchange Chromotography
Analytes interact with charged sorbent
What is the principle of separation for Size Exclusion chromotography
Separated molecules enter pores in sorbent material
What is the principle of separation for Reversed Phase chromotography
Different polarity of mobile and stationary phases
What is the principle of separation for GC
Molecules are separated based on their boiling points
Give an general description of Immunoassays
1. Anti-body reacts with antigen
2. Immunoassay can be homogeneous and heterogeneous
3. Immunoassay's can be competitive or direct
What is the principle of detection of RIA
competition with radiolabeled analyte
What is the principle of detection of Agglutination
Precipitation when antigen is multivalent
What is the principle of detection of EIA
Activity of an antibody linked enzyme
What is the principle of detection of EMIT
Changes in activity of drug linked enzyme upon binding antibody
What is the principle of detection of FPIA
decreased rotational freedom of a drug-linked flurophore upon binding antibody
Give a general description of Flow cytometry
1. Cells are detected by spark of scattered light produced when they cross sensing zone
2. Cells are characterized by the properties of scattered light and emitted fluorescence
3. Cells can be sorted based on their properties
What technique could you use to detect these Diseases?
-Hematological Malignancies
-Minimal Residual Disease
-Lymphocyte Subset Enumeration (HIV)
-Efficacy of Cancer Therapy
-PLatelet Function analysis
Flow Cytometry
What technique is generally used for drug screening?
What technique can be used to detect HIV
What technique is used to detect sickle cell anemia and Thalassemia?
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis
How do you detect Lymes Disease?
Western Plot
What technique is used for AC test and Immunoglobin assays?
What is commonly used for Drugs test and therapeutic monitoring of plasma drug levels?
What can mass spec be used for clinically?
Cancer Diagnosis