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369 Cards in this Set

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Fertility / Mortality rates at the end of the 20th Century
Below long-term average
Life expectancy of aging population: close of 20th Century
Helped by improving health care
Bioengineering and gene therapy
Promising technologies: close of 20th Century
Record number of births after WWII
Baby Boom
Baby Boomers born when?
Between 1946 and 1964
U.S. fertility rate since 1972
Less than replacement level of 2.1 children per female
Causes of lower-than-replacement level of U.S. fertility since 1972 despite the number of Baby Boomer parents
Work opportunities and improved contraception ("The Pill")
Rising non-aging population at the end of the 20th Century caused by?
Immigration rates (legal and illegal)
Definition of "family" at end of 20th Century:
Includes unmarried women with children
% of births attributed to unmarried women in 1994:
Late 20th Century rising nationalism in areas of Soviet oppression caused . . ?
Outbreak of civil wars in the Balkans
Rapid democratization of Soviet Union caused . . .?
Avalance of change
The Soviet Union broke into separate nations beginning . . ?
Mid - late 1990's condition of Afghanistan?
In civil war. Harboring of terrorists not yet a concern.
Conflict between Israel and Egypt settled by treaty in . .?
China takes back Hong Kong when?
Martin Luther King's methods?
Non-violent defiance of segregation
MLK's rejection of nonviolence caused him to . ?
Not support groups like the Black Panthers.
Difference between methods of MLK and Booker T. Washington:
MLK: civil disobedience
BTW: patience
Booker T. Washington
Proponent of Black civil rights; end of 19th Century; advocated 'patience'.
One 19th Century method of protesting slavery:
Petitions to Congress
Calls for reparations for slavery began . . ?
Late 20th Century
Reparations: definition
Monetary compensation for wrongdoing. (to Blacks for slavery; to the North from the South after the Civil War)
Agreement ending the Cuban Missile Crisis called for . .?
Soviet Union (Kruschev) would withdraw missiles from Cuba.
U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba.
Existing issues NOT included in agreement to end Cuban Missile Crisis:
U.S. missiles in Turkey
Soviet troops in Cuba
U.S. missiles in Europe
Where did immigrants of the "New Immigration" settle?
Large Northeast and Midwest cities
When did the "New Immigration" take place?
Late 19th Century
Where did the "New Immigration" originate?
Eastern and Southern Europe
Most significant cause of U.S. entry into WWI:
Germany's declaration of its intent to wage unrestricted submarine warfare.
Existing SECONDARY conditions which CONTRIBUTED to the U.S. decision to enter WWI:
Germany's violation of Belgian neutrality (1914)
Revelation of Germany's suggestions to Mexico re: possible collusion)
Teddy Roosevelt's 'New Nationalism' pertained to?
Domestic reform
Two points of Teddy Roosevelt's foreign policy philosophy:
He favored developing a form of colonial empire.
He rejected isolationism.
Common misunderstanding of Teddy Roosevelt's reputation as a 'trust-buster':
He did not favor breaking up ALL trusts and large business combinations.
Teddy Roosevelt's stand on Socialists' call for government ownership of basic industries:
Who established the RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation)?
Herbert Hoover
What was the RFC?
Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Established as remedy for depression by Herbert Hoover.
Cause of Herbert Hoover's break w/ many Republican leaders:
His establishment of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation: an intervention to help end the depression.
Philosophy of many Republican leaders during the Hoover administration (re: the depression)
It was a 'business cycle' and should be allowed to run its course without interventional measures.
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon: what administration?
Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon's felt what about the Depression?
It was a business cycle that should be allowed to run its course without interventional measures.
Four points of FDR's New Deal:
1.Artificially raise crop prices.
2.Artificially cause prices to rise in general
3.Effective elimination of the Gold Standard (as it previously existed)
4.Establish governmental regulation of banking system to restore confidence
How did FDR propose to raise prices of crops and merchandise?
Pay farmers NOT to plant and get businesses to cooperatively control production.
The Haymarket Affair took place when?
The Haymarketk Affair of 1886 involved . . .?
A bomb thrown at Chicago police and a subsequent riot involving police and striking workers.
Post-Civil War administration remembered primarily for its scandals:
Ulysses S. Grant
The Mulligan Letters
Contained allegations of corruption of presidential candidate James G. Blaine
Disastrous fire which brought attention to factory conditions:
The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
When did the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire occur?
Where was the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory?
New York
Early Supreme Court court decision impacing states' rights to regulate the railroad industry:
Munn v. Illinois
When did the Supreme Court rule in Munn v. Illinois?
Significance of Munn v. Illinois:
Supreme Court ruling impacting states' rights to regulate the railroad industry.
Two Populist desires:
Free coinage of silver.
Direct election of U.S. Senators
Fallacy regarding Populist views on the Electoral College:
They did not necessarily want to end it: they wanted direct election of U.S. Senators.
What movement followed Populism?
Two elements of Progressivism:
Reformation of Child Labor Laws and the use of modern science to solve social problems.
Who wanted to reform the Child Labor laws and use modern science to solve social problems?
The Progressivists (Progressivism)
Populist stand on racial discrimination:
More likely to favor discrimination than to oppose it.
What treaty indicated U.S. acceptance of the concept of Mutual Assured Destruction?
Was SALT I ratified by the U.S. Senate?
What did SALT I discourage?
The deployment of defensive weapons.
Two goals SALT I did NOT accomplish:
Substantial reductions of both U.S. and Soviet missiles.
Did not decrease Soviet missiles to equal the number of the U.S.
SALT I or SALT II: which was NOT ratified by the U.S. Senate?
Three requirements and one recommendation of Andrew Johnson to former Confederate states:
Required: Ratification of 13th Amendment; renouncement of secession and repudiation of the Confederate debt.
Recommendation: they should extend the franchise (the vote) to blacks.
Andrew Johnson's stand on reparations by Confederate states:
He did not require them to pay reparations.
The 13th Amendment
Ended slavery
'Extend the franchise to blacks'
Allow them to vote
Why did many American intellectuals of the 1920's become expatriates?
They felt alienated by a country whose manners and direction they found distasteful.
Define: expatriate?
Someone who moves to a foreign country to live long-term. (May renounce citizenship)
From what group of Americans did many expatriates come in the 1920's
American intellectuals
The attitude of many American intellectuals of the 1920's
Woodrow Wilson's response to a perceived insult to the U.S. flag in Vera Cruz?
Ordered the occupation of the port of Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Two reasons Wilson ordered the occupation of the port of Vera Cruz:
A perceived insult to the U.S. flag and to hasten the downfall of Mexican leader Victoriano Huerta
Woodrow Wilson's first response to German U-boat activities against U.S. ships:
Diplomatic protests
Woodrow Wilson's response to Mexican bandid Panco Villa's raid across the border into the United States:
Ordered Pershing into Mexico.
Which came first: occupation of Vera Cruz or Pershing being ordered into Mexico?
The occupation of Vera Cruz. Pershing was ordered into Mexico two years later.
Woodrow Wilson's stance on the Huerta Regime:
He never recognized it diplomatically.
When did U.S. troops last occupy Mexico City?
The end of the Mexican War in 1848
What war ended in 1848?
The Mexican War
When did the Mexican War end?
Five of Wilson's Fourteen Points:
Collective security; self-determination; open diplomacy; freedom of the seas and the formation of a League of Nations
Booker T. Washington encouraged his fellow Blacks to:
Work hard; acquire property and prove they were worthy of their rights.
A contemporary and a critis of Booker T. Washington:
W.E.B. DuBois
W.E.B. DuBois encourages his fellow Blacks to:
Question racial inequality; be more militant in demanding their rights; not accept separate-but-equal facilities and form an organization to advance their rights.
What organization did W.E.B. DuBois form?
The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Who formed the NAACP?
W.E.B. DuBois
What does 'NAACP' stand for?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois were black civil rights proponents when?
Late 19th Century / early 20th Century
Two black civil rights proponents of the late 19th / early 20th centuries:
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois
Attempts to remove Andrew Johnson from the presidency:
Impeached but not removed from office. (The vote to remove him fell short by one vote.)
Was Andrew Johnson ever charged with a criminal offense?
Was Andrew Johnson removed from office?
Was Andrew Johnson impeached?
By what margin did Andrew Johnson avoid being removed from office?
One vote.
What were Democrats promised in the Compromise of 1877?
An end to Reconstruction
Were protective tariffs reduced or removed as part of the Compromise of 1877?
Was compensation to be paid for freed slaves as part of the Compromise of 1877?
Were bribes or promises concerning future elections a part of the Compromise of 1877?
During what Administration did the income tax become law?
Woodrow Wilson
During what Administration was the Pure Food and Drug Act passed?
During what Administration was the Sherman Antitrust Act passed?
Benjamin Harrison
What Administration instituted old-age pensions?
During what Administration was the Underwood Tariff passed?
Woodrow Wilson
What purpose did the Underwood Tariff serve?
It represented a REDUCTION of tariff rates.
What tariff actually represented a REDUCTION in tariff rates?
The Underwood Tariff
Two points agreed upon by Churchill and FDR at Casablanca:
Demand for unconditional surrender of the Axis and to hold Axis leaders responsible for their crimes.
Who were the two leaders present at the Casablanca meetings?
FDR and Churchill
During what war were the meetings at Casablanca held?
When did the Casablanca meetings take place?
The Summer of 1943.
Why did the Casablanca Agreements NOT include concentrating first on Germany or landing Allied troops in France?
Concentrating on Germany first had already been decided. It was still too risky to consider landing troops in France in the summer of '43.
To whom did the Farmers Alliances of the 1880's appeal?
Farmers of the Great Plains and the South
Why did the Farmers Alliances of the 1880's appeal to farmers of the Great Plains and the South?
They were mired in continual cycles of debt due to crop liens; sharecropping and low commodity prices.
Why did small farmers in the Northeast not need the Farmers' Alliances?
Although they could not compete with Western farmers, they had no need to: they focused on perishable goods for nearby metropolitan areas.
Did the Chinese farmers in the Western States join the Farmers Alliances?
Did owners of giant 'bonanza' farms of the Northern Plains join the Farmers' Alliances?
No: they had no need to.
What did the Farmers' Alliances of the 1880's hope to accomplish?
The institution of government regulation of farming to help control prices.
The 14th Amendment
Made all people born in the U.S. - and all those who had been naturalized - citizens with certain civil rights (NOT ALL civil rights)
What Constitutional Amendment made all naturalized persons and all persons born in the U.S. citizens - and gave them (limited) civil rights?
The 14th Amendment
What Amendment were most former Confederate states required to ratify during Reconstruction?
The 14th Amendment?
Were separate or integrated public schools part of Reconstruction?
Were former Confederate states required to give blacks the same civil rights afforded to whites?
No. The 14th Amendment provided some civil rights but not all those afforded to white male citizens.
The 16th Amendment
Allowed the federal income tax.
During what Administration was the 16th Amendment passed?
Woodrow Wilson
When was the 16th Amendment ratified?
What was the primary function of the World War I Food Administration?
Oversee production and allocation of foodstuffs to assure adequate food for the Army and the Allies.
Did the World War I Food Administration monitor the QUALITY of foodstuffs sent to soldiers?
Not particularly.
Did the World War I Food Administration become involved in operating farms?
Was one purpose of the World War I Food Administration to raise farm prices?
No: they were considered to be high enough
What was the purpose of the Truman Doctrine?
To aid countries that were the target of Communist expansionism.
What was the essence of the Monroe Doctrine?
Prevent European meddling in the affairs of South American countries.
What President is responsible for the Truman Doctrine?
Harry Truman
What President is responsible for the Monroe Doctrine?
James Monroe
What was the primary purpose of the Marshall Plan?
Provide economic aid to war-torn Europe.
During what Administration was the Marshall Plan instituted?
The Truman Administration
After which war was the Marshall Plan instituted?
What form did subsidies to TRANSCONTINENTAL railroads generally take?
Land grants along the railroad's right-of-way.
Which was occasionally provided to TRANSCONTNENTAL railroads?
Loans (on a per-mile basis)
Were tax breaks a part of the subsidies granted to transcontinental railroads?
Were blanket appropriations or provisions of supplies and materials given as subsidies to transcontinental railroads?
Did transcontinental railroads generally use convict labor?
No: their construction was usually too far from centers of population.
In what region was convict labor sometimes used to build railways?
The South: in the laying of LOCAL (instate) tracks.
A primary belief of the Social Gospel Movement:
Religion was not an individual matter, but a social one.
Was the Social Gospel Movement generally concerned about 'ordinary sin' such as alcohol abuse and sexual permissiveness?
No: these were society's fault
Did members of the Social Gospel Movement blame the poor for their plight?
No: they would blame society
Did members of the Social Gospel Movement feel sinners simply lacked willpower?
No: this was society's fault.
Would members of the Social Gospel Movement believe that Christians should work to reorganize the industrial system and bring about international peace?
Significance: Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court upheld separate but equal facilities.
What case overturned Plessy v. Ferguson?
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
When was Plessy v. Ferguson decided?
When was Brown v. Topeka Board of Education decided?
Significance of the Dred Scott Case:
No black slave could be a citizen.
When was Dred Scott v. Sanford decided?
What Supreme Court ruling said that no black slave could be a citizen?
Dred Scott v. Sanford in 1857
By what case did the Supreme Court over-rule Scott v. Sanford?
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education in 1954
What was the relationship between the Spanish-American War and the building of the Panama Canal?
The war showed the need to move naval forces from coast-to-coast quickly.
When was Brown v. Topeka Board of Education decided?
Woodrow Wilson's most prized 'point':
The League of Nations
What Compromise did W.E.B. DuBois oppose?
The Atlanta Compromise
Who authored the Atlanta Compromise?
Booker T. Washington
Who led the Niagara Movement?
W.E.B. DuBois
What contributed most significantly to the end of Reconstruction?
Northern voters lost interest and became tired of it.
Did Northern Radicals care whether or not Reconstruction was Constitutionl?
Not particularly
Who has been called 'The Father of Progressive Education'?
John Dewey
What 'pragmatist' philosopher influenced John Dewey?
William James
Two goals of John Dewey were:
To alter the content and purpose of schooling and to socialize the child through his peer group.
Was John Dewey particularly concerned with strengthening a child's respect for parental (or any) authority?
First policy of the U.S. Government regarind the Plains Indians:
Let them have it all: its a desert anyway.
Evolution of governmental policy toward Plains Indians beginning with 'Let them have it all':
Let them have it all; divide them between two large reservations; confine them to a number of smaller reservations; give them their land in individual parcels. In the end the government returned to their plans for reservations.
Georgia O'Keefe; Thomas Hart Benton and Edward Hopper were:
American painters of the 1920's
What music and style of buildings characterized the 1920's?
Jazz and skyscrapers
What was the subject of many of Georgia O'Keefe's paintings?
Abstracts of flowers and animal skulls against the background of the New Mexico desert.
The Dumbarton Oaks Conference
Held in 1944. Led to the formation of the League of Nations.
When did the Dumbarton Oaks Conference take place?
What trials decided the fate of Nazi war criminals?
The Nuremberg Trials
During what conference was the redivision of Eastern Europe discussed?
Give one issue discussed at Yalta:
The re-division of Eastern Europe.
What was the highest AVERAGE rate of unemployment in the U.S. during the Great Depression?
At it's highest, U.S. unemployment averaged 25% during the Great Depression. How many people were out of work?
13 Million
To what rate did unemployment soar in cities during the Great Depression?
rates which approached 90%
The high rate of unemployment was a major cause/result of the Great Depression. What was the other factor also relating to unemployment?
The long period of time people were unemployed exhausted any resources they or their families might have had to help them. (No welfare or unemployment compensation)
In what year did the average U.S. employment reach its highest point?
What was the average rate of U.S. unemployment in early 1937?
In early 1937, average rate of U.S. unemployment had decreased to 14.3%. How many people were still out of work?
8 Million
Early in 1937, there were 8 million unemployed in the U.S. What developed in 1937 which increased that number to 10 million by the end of 1937?
Recession of 1937
What were 'Hoovervilles'?
Camps of unemployed, homeless people which formed in every American city. Named after President Hoover.
By what percentage did U.S. crop prices fall during the Great Depression?
Some workers managed to keep their jobs during the Great Depression. But by what % did their wages fall?
During what war did the Battle of Midway take place?
Where is the island of Midway?
1000 northwest of Hawaii.
During what year did the Battle of Midway take place?
Significance of the Battle of Midway:
Turning point in the war between Japan and the U.S.
First significant American naval victory.
Put Japan permanently on the defensive.
Who held the island of Midway at the time of the battle?
The U.S.
Why did Japanese high command choose Midway and not some other island to attack?
Location: vital to U.S. because it allowed us to protect Hawaii AND provided base at which to observe all Japanese actions throughout the central Pacific.
Facilities: Airstrip and seaplane base.
What prompted the Japanese high command to decide to attack an American-held Pacific island in 1942?
They were angered by air raids which originated on U.S. carriers. They wanted to wipe out the remainder of the U.S. fleet by forcing it into a decisive battle.
Why were the Japanese so sure they could win the Battle of Midway?
Japan had ten aircraft carriers and believed the U.S. had only two. (They believed they had sunk the Yorktown at the Battle of the Coral Sea, but it had actually been repaired in time for Midway.) The Japanese had many battleships and heavy cruisers: the U.S. had only two battleships - which they actually chose not to use - and only eight heavy cruisers. The U.S. was out-gunned.
Why were the Japanese wrong about their ability to win the Battle of Midway?
American cryptographers broke the Japanese code and discovered the plan.
The Japanese were over-confidant and did not concentrate their forces into a single, overwhelming attack.
After the U.S. sunk four of Japan's largest aircraft carriers, they did not have sufficient air cover and cancelled the invasion. (American analysts actually thought the Japanese would regroup and attack again, but the Japanese were so stunned they turned on the defensive.)
Significance of Japan's switch from an offensive position to a defensive one after the Battle of Midway?
The U.S. could take the initiative at Guadalcanal to begin an island-hopping campaign that took Japan's outer islands.
Significance: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
Brought the U.S. into the war
When did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor?
December 7, 1941
How did FDR refer to December 7, 1941?
"a day which will live in infamy"
Significance: Battle of Leyte Gulf:
Preceded the U.S. invasion of the Phillipines.
When did the Battle of Leyte Gulf take place?
Changes resulting from the rapid industrial development of the U.S. from 1860 - 1900:
Factories had to be built bigger to accommodate new machinery.
Small factories could not afford industrial machinery and did not produce enough to make it profitable even if they did: small factories went under or were bought up.
Worker production increased and the focus was on speed of production rather than the quality of work.
What did President Carter do that enraged Iran?
He allowed the deposed Shah to enter the U.S. for cancer treatment.
What crisis was precipitated by President Carter's decision to allow the Shah into the U.S. for cancer treatment
Young Iranian males (claimed to be students and backed by their government) took over the U.S. Embassy and took 76 hostages. 62 were held for over a year.
What crisis contributed to the ruin of the Carter Presidency?
The Iranian Hostage Crisis
When did the Iranian Hostage Crisis begin?
November 4, 1979
When were the Camp David Accords signed?
What President instituted the 'Good Neighbor' policy?
When was the 'Good Neighbor' policy instituted?
What was the scope of the 'Good Neighbor' policy?
FDR's consolication of many changes already underway meant to reduce / revise the level of U.S. intervention in Latin America following our blatant interference which had continued into the 1930's.
What 'policy' preceded the 'Good Neighbor' policy?
the 'Big Stick'
What were some specific provisions of the 'Good Neighbor' policy?
The U.S. government would cease making decisions for Latin American countries; consult their leaders and ask for their approval before intervening. The U.S. would support 'strong, independent' leaders and help train Latin American military so countries could defend themselves. U.S. banks would provide stabilizing loans and other economic assistance to fragile L.A. economies.
What kinds of Latin American leaders often emerged during the time of the 'Good Neighbor' policy?
Military dictators who rose to power after being trained as soldiers by the U.S.
What was the attitude of Latin American military dictators during the time of the 'Good Neighbor' policy?
They owed their power to the U.S.: and often only stayed in power due to U.S. backing.
Did U.S. domination of Latin America end with the 'Good Neighbor' policy?
No. It just became slightly more diplomatic and less visible.
Reagonomics: define:
Supply-side economics. ('Trickle-down theory')Money made available to the rich would eventually reach the middle-class the poor.
Did Reagonomics work?
Not well. The economy rebounded but the federal deficit soared.
How does Reagonomics work?
Tax cuts to businesses and the wealthy loosen money for future investments which creates jobs and 'trickle' the money down to the middle-class and the poor.
Why didn't Reagonomics work?
Many wealthy business owners pocketed the money instead of re-investing it. The new jobs created often didn't pay well.
'Planned Economy'
Advocated by many liberals in the 1930's
'Pump-priming theory'
Economic theory advanced by John Maynard Keynes
'Controlled Growth'
Refers to efforts to balance growth and inflation through monetary policy.
Define the 'bubble-up' economic theory:
There is no such thing.
Economic theory espoused by many liberals in the 1930's:
'Planned Economy'
John Maynard Keynes
Economic theory involving 'pump priming'
Efforts to balance growth and inflation through monetary policies is termed:
'Controlled Growth'
When were the Fourteen Points proposed?
January 1918
Fairness and openness in international relations was characteristic of what President's innovative foreign policy?
Woodrow Wilson
Under what misconception did the German's labor once they recognized their inevitable defeat in WWI?
That since the Americans had 'saved' Britain and France, the U .S. would be the primary player in negotiating the terms for peace.
What treaty ended WWI?
The Treaty of Versaille
How did Britain and France influence the overall terms of the Treaty of Versaille?
Both countries were very determined to exact vengeance.
What was Woodrow Wilson's domestic agenda at the time of his election?
The 'New Freedom' policy
When was President Woodrow Wilson elected President?
What president was elected in 1912?
Woodrow Wilson
What was the 'New Freedom'?
Woodrow Wilson's domestic agenda at the time of his election in 1912
What 1916 pledge was broken when Germany announced its intention to wage unrestricted U-boat warfare in the Atlantic?
The Sussex Pledge
Who made the Sussex Pledge?
What did the Sussex Pledge promise?
Germany would not attack unarmed ships without warning.
What was the general relationship between Republicans and Democrats between 1876 and 1900?
They shared political equality: neither dominated
When did the concept of laissez-faire leadership flourish?
Between 1876 and 1900
Define: laissez-faire governing:
The government stayed as inactive and uninvolved as possible.
What effect did laissez-faire government have upon the legislative process?
It discouraged significant reform measures and led to the election of 'caretaker' presidents.
What prevented presidents between 1876 and 1900 from being active, dynamic leaders?
The relative equality of Republicans and Democrats.
Define: Muckrakers:
Term coined by Teddy Roosevelt to describe the sensationalist exposes of high-level corruption.
Why did Teddy Roosevelt see those exposing corruption as 'muckrakers'?
Their stories focused on the worst about political and industrial leaders; playing to the 'baser instincts' of the public.
What kind of corruption prompted exposure by 'muckrakers'?
Political and industrial leaders were using their positions to further their own interests at the expense of the public.
What resulted from the exposes of the muckrakers?
The stories led to a public outcry for reform and provided Progressivism with ammunition to pass vital reforms.
What two Amendments were passed in the 1920's which demonstrate a decade of both liberalism and conservatism?
The 18th Amendment brought prohibition.
The 19th Amendment gave women suffrage.
When did consumerism become the new American 'ethic'?
The 1920's
What three factors led to the 1920's American ethic of consumerism?
New forms of credit; advertising and increases in wages and productivity.
When did the Ku Klux Klan reach it's zenith?
How many peoplel were members of the KKK at its zenith?
5 Million
What helped the KKK grow to its zenith in 1925?
What four factors broke the KKK power base and discredited it as a political force?
Sex scandals; corruption; poor leadership and public revulsion.
In what regions did the KKK have the most effect on local and regional politics until the mid 1920's?
South; Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions.
How did prohibition impact law enforcement?
It encouraged bootlegging and organized crime.
What happened to Progressivism in the 1920's?
It essentially disappeared - and even rolled back - as pro-business and economic growth philosophies took hold in Republican administrations.
What Republican administrations effectively ended Progressivism in the 1920's?
Harding; Coolidge and Hoover.
What political party was most powerful in the 1920's?
Laissez-faire capitalism was the earmark of what decade?
What movement is diametrically opposed to laissez-faire capitalism?
What philosophy is directly opposed to Progressivism?
Laissez-faire capitalism
What was the purpose of the Farm Security Administration?
To restore faith in America by showing those who survived the Great Depression. Photojournalists were sent around the country to capture America.
How would the Farm Security Administration be characterized?
As a public relations campaign.
What commonality do these share? Civil Works Administration; Civilian Conservation Corp; Works Progress Administration and the National Youth Administration?
They were all created to create jobs in the 1930's.
On what did the Plains Indians depend for survival?
The buffalo
How many buffalo roamed the plains in 1850?
Over 13 Million
How many buffalo roamed the plains in 1890?
Less than 1000
How did the Sioux and the Cheyenne respond to white settlement which threatened their lifestyle?
They fought.
During what decade did the Sioux and the Cheyenne wage war against whites for survival?
Why did the Sioux and the Cheyenne fight if they knew it was hopeless?
Death was more honorable than dying in subjugation.
How did sharecropping work?
Poor tenant and independent farmers borrowed seed, equipment and supplies for planting and harvesting a crop: which they pledged against the value of what they borrowed.
How did property owners take advantage of sharecroppers?
They charged interest rates as high as 200%
By what sole method were goods transported during the 1880's and 1890's?
How were those who lived in areas with only one railroad at a disadvantage?
The railroads charged exhorbitant shipping rates.
What purpose did the Interstate Commerce Act serve?
To curb pricing and other abuses by railroads.
When was the Interstate Commerce Act passed?
To whom did the Supreme Court give sole discretion to regulate interstate commerce?
What agency was formed to permanently monitor railroad policies and prevent abuses?
The Interstate Commerce Commission.
What union formed in 1869 admitted blacks, women and unskilled workers?
The Knights of Labor
What was the long-term philosophy of the Knights of Labor?
Achieving a society in which employees and managers worked cooperatively for all of society's benefit.
When did the Knights of Labor reach its height of power?
What caused the disintegration of the Knights of Labor?
Several failed strikes; including that which resulted in the Haymarket Square riot in 1886.
What happened to the Knights of Labor when they began to lose power?
They broke into small crafts unions and other more radical workers' groups and were eventually supplanted by the AFL(C).
What union was most powerful by the 1890's?
The AFL(C)
What mid-1930's group grew out of the AFL?
The Congress of Industrial Organizations.
Where did the radical union "The Industrial Workers of the World" come from in the late 19th century?
Western Federation of Miners
What dominated the workings of city governments in the late 19th Century?
Political machines and the politics of political bosses.
How did the political machines of the late 19th century portray themselves?
As champions of the poor who fought against upper-class reformers interested only in themselves.
Whose interests did the political machines of the late 19th century really serve?
Their own and those of their most influential supporters.
How did the political machines of the late 19th century stay in power?
They traded aid to the poor for votes.
How did the poor often defeat themselves in the late 19th century?
They took the aid of the political machines and blocked the election of true reformers.
Who did NOT support the political machines of the late 19th century?
The wealthy who lived outside the cities and the middle-class.
Where did the political machines of the late 19th century draw some limited support?
Indirectly, from organized religion and some industrial leaders.
What influenced the creation of American Jazz in New Orleans?
European musical influences of wealthy Creoles intermingled with African musical influences of poor blacks.
Where is the birthplace of American jazz?
New Orleans
During what decade was American jazz born?
The 1890's
How did jazz influence the lives of the musicians who performed it?
They were wealthier than any other blacks in the country and enjoyed a level of respect and recognition not given to most other blacks.
Where did 'blues' develop?
The rural South
What came first: Jazz or Blues?
The Blues
When did Gospel and Country music emerge?
The late 1920's and 1930's.
Why is the Tet Offensive considered the turning point of the Vietnam War?
The tone of press coverage turned from optimistic to realistic. Americans ignored the fact that the North lost: and focused on the fact that the North had had the capability for such a major assault at all.
When was the Tet Offensive?
It began on January 31, 1968
Who 'won' the Tet Offensive?
American / South Vietnamese forces.
How was the Tet Offensive fought differently from previous battles?
North Vietnamese forces scrapped guerilla tactics for an all-out assault on key bases and provincial cities in the South: the kind of battle that American technology was made for.
What event brought down Lyndon Johnson?
The Tet Offensive
How did the Tet Offensive affect Johnson's election campaign?
He withdrew.
How did American opinion and Johnson's withdrawal from the presidential race affect the North Vietnamese moral?
They dug in their heels because they knew they could 'wait us out' until the war lost all support in the U.S.
What event caused the first major escalation of the Vietnam War?
The Gulf of Tonkin incident.
Why is the Gulf of Tonkin incident seen as exceptional?
It is believed by some to have been staged for the purpose of gaining support for the war's escalation.
When did the Gulf of Tonkin incident take place?
August 2, 1964
What does 'NLF' stand for?
The National Liberation Front: the political unit organized by the Vietcong to overthrow the South Vietnamese government.
What political unit was organized by the Vietcong to overthrow the government of South Vietnam?
The National Liberation Front (NLF)
What was irrational about the Truman Doctrine?
Some of the non-Communist governments supported were headed by brutal military dictators.
What set of circumstances led to Truman's speech announcing the policies which would form the Truman Doctrine?
Britain notified the U.S. that it could no longer shoulder the economics of aid to Greece and Turkey: both in struggles against Communism. Greece was in civil war and could not have survived without help.
When did the policies known as the Truman Doctrine begin?
How did civil war in Greece influence American foreign policy?
Truman was determined that Greece not fall to Communism. When Britain could no longer afford the aid, the U.S. took over - and began massive aid to any country facing Communist insurgents or intervention: the Truman Doctrine
What was the primary cause of the Spanish-American war?
Spanish occupation of Cuba
When did the Spanish-American War begin?
How did 'yellow journalism' contribute to the Spanish-American War?
Lurid stories of Spanish atrocities whipped up American support for Cuban revolutionaries operating from American soil: they were likened to the American revolutionaries of the 18th century.
Why did American businesses want Cuba independent from Spain?
New markets would be 'ripe for the picking'
Was the sinking of the battleship 'Maine' a primary cause of the Spanish-American War?
No. It was a precipitating factor, not a cause.
How did Woodrow Wilson effectively sabatoge his own desires concerning the Treaty of Versailles?
He did not invite any Republicans or any Senators to accompany him to the Treaty of Paris. Hence, the Senate found much to disagree with when the treaty was presented for ratification. Wilson was also unable to prevent the treaty terms from being vengeful: as he had promised pre-negotiation.
How did Woodrow Wilson respond to the Senate's refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles?
He attempted to circumvent them by launching a direct campaign to Americans. His tactics were poor: name calling and direct attacks on the intelligence of the Senate. He had a stroke returning to Washington and refused to negotiate any further with treaty critics.
Was the Treaty of Versailles ever ratified by the Senate?
No. The U.S. signed a separate peace treaty with Germany. It went before the Senate twice but was defeated both times.
How did 1920's authors Sinclair; Hemingway; H.L. Mencken and Fitzgerald view the end of Progressivism?
They felt America had lost its ideals: its very sense of right v. wrong. These beliefs were portrayed in their works of the time.
What prompted the easy new credit available in the 1920's?
Wages were not high enough for consumers to purchase all the new goods being manufactures. Farmers faced falling crop prices. When everyone reached their credit limit, banks called loans that people could not pay.
What purpose was the Indian Reorganization Act supposed to serve?
It was meant to give Indians back control of their lands and the right to preserve their traditions. Indian lands could no longer be divided up and parceled out.
What purpose did the General Allotment Act of 1887 serve?
It allowed Indian reservations to be divided up and parceled out in allotments that allowed white exploitation.
When was the Indian Reorganization Act passed?
Besides land reforms, what were other provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act?
It provided funding for Indian hospitals; schools and welfare agencies and ended restrictions on Indian religions, rituals and language.
Lyndon Johnson's 'Great Society' was aimed at what?
Civil Rights and the War on Poverty.
What two pieces of landmark legislation were passed during the Lyndon Johnson administration?
The Civil Rights Act (1964)
The Voting Rights Act (1965)
What is a general criticism of Lyndon Johnson's war on poverty?
It created a 'welfare state'
Define: Jim Crow Laws
'Separate but equal' facilities for blacks and whites.
How did the Jim Crow Laws come into being?
The Supreme Court struck down desegregation laws during the 1880's and 1890's and upheld 'separate but equal'.
What two strategies were used in the South before the 1960's to prevent blacks from voting?
Poll taxes and literacy requirements.
When were the Smoot-Hawley Tariffs enacted?
What was the intended purpose of the Smoot-Hawley Tariffs?
To create / save American jobs by limiting European imports.
What deleterious unexpected effects did the Smoot-Hawley Tariffs cause?
Europeans could not sell their goods in America so they could not buy American goods: and jobs were lost. Europeans enacted their own protective tariffs so American goods could not be sold there: and jobs were lost.
What was the primary cause of American anger over the Iran-Contra Affair?
That arms were sold to Iran in exchange for their help in releasing American hostages in Lebanon.
What area saw the largest percentage of population growth between 1860 and 1910?
The Great Plains
What factors contributed to the population growth in the Great Plains from 1860 to 1910?
Immigrants drawn to rich farmlands; the Homestead Act (160 acres / 1862); railroads gave settlers land in return for developing the land next to railroad right-of-ways; states and territories hungry for population set up land grants and programs to encourage settlers.
What Amendment is considered most important by many legal scholars?
The 14th: which mandates the federal government provide equal protection under the law for every citizen. It was passed because Andrew Johnson was refusing to enforce laws protecting the civil righs of former slaves - and blacks in general. Congress required former Confederate states to ratify the 14th Amendment before their governments would be recognized.
The 13th Amendment
Abolished slavery
The 15th Amendment
Guaranteed the vote to all male citizens of majority age.
The 19th Amendment
Gave the vote to women
The 16th Amendment
Authorized the federal income tax.
What was Richard Nixon's most crucial mistake?
Covering up the crimes of his underlings.
What doomed Gerald Ford's political career?
His pardoning of Richard Nixon.
The Atlantic Charter: significance:
End product of August 1941 meeting between FDR and Churchill. Made Britain and U.S. defacto allies despite America's state of neutrality at the time.
The worst defeat ever suffered by the U.S. Navy:
Pearl Harbor
Factors which encouraged the belief that Pearl Harbor was a conspiracy:
Racism against Japanese: 'They couldn't have done it without inside help'; a warning telegram was sent before the attack and it was discovered that an enormous amount of intelligence had been gathered prior to the attack.
Evidence that there was no conspiracy surrounding Pearl Harbor:
Military analysts chose to assume the Japanese fleet was going somewhere other than Pearl Harbor; the warning telegram was sent over commercial, not military, wires and did not arrive in time and no one intelligence agency had ALL the info necessary to predict the attack: and they didn't share info due to competition.
By when had open-range ranching ended and why?
By the mid-1890's it had ended: mainly due to competition for public land. (The harsh winter of '86-'87 killed many cattle and accelerated the ending.)
Range-wars were fought by . ?
Open-range cattle ranchers and farmers and sheep ranchers. Against fencing and for control of public land.
How did Joseph Pulitzer revolutionize journalism?
He felt newspapers should target the masses; the news read like a soap opera instead of being neutral and unbiased. He used lurid stories; exaggerated headlines and made-up details to arouse readers. His tactics were copied: most successfully by William Randolph Hearst.
Why was 'yellow journalism' yellow?
The term came from the yellow ink used to print a popular comic strip carried by Pulitzer's paper: New York World
Which political party generally supported protective tariffs?
The Republicans
How did 1880's tariffs on imported goods affect the American economy?
Americans could no longer afford imported goods. American manufacturers raised their prices to the artificial high ones of imported goods: so Americans couldn't afford domestic goods either. Farmers were unprotected by tariffs and so couldn't afford to buy anything.
Who instituted the War Industries Board?
Woodrow Wilson
When was the War Industries Board created?
WIB: define:
War Industries Board created 1917 by Woodrow Wilson after disbanding corrupt committees overseeing war production and mobilization.
What famous trial took place during the summer of 1925?
The Scopes "Monkey Trial"
The Scopes "Monkey Trial": significance:
1925; Dayton, Tennesee: biology teacher John Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution. Trial = national news story w/ circus atmosphere. William Jennings Bryant = expert witness. Scopes defended by Clarence Darrow. Fundamentalists won but were painted in such a bad light that they lost ground in society.
Post-WWII 'bone in the throat of Russia':
Reasons for Stalin's blockade:
wanted to drive the U.S. and Britain out and prevent the formation of a free West German state.
When did the Berlin Airlift become necessary and how long did it last?
June, 1948. It lasted for 11 months.