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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 things in the JG apparatus?
1) JG cells
2) macula densa
3) mesangial cells
What are the 2 important functions of the JG apparatus?
1) secretion of renin by JG cells
2) tubulogolmerular feedback
How much urine, on average, is made/day?
1-1.5 L
What kind of clearances do substances that are filtered and secreted have (low or high)?
high
What kind of units does clearance have?
volume/time
What is an example of a glomerular marker?
inulin
What does clearance tell you about a substance?
How it is handled in the kidney
What are the two methods of autoregulation of RBF?
1) myogenic hypothesis
2) tubuloglomerular feedback
What is myogenic hypothesis?
afferent arterioles that are stretched then contract in response to increased Pa (to prevent an increase in blood flow)
What is secreted by the macula densa in TG feedback?
adenosine - it is secreted in response to and increaed delivered solute load (increased GFR) -- it constricts afferent arterioles (increasing their resistance) and returning RBF and GFR to normal
What does PAH measure in the kidney?
RPF
What is the difference between true RPH and effective RPH?
the effective underestimates RPH by 10% because it does not take into account the blood flow in the renal vein (because it is fairly low)
What is the order of the three layers of the glomerular capillary barrier (in to out)?
1) endothelium
2) basement membrane
3) epithelial layer with podocytes (next to bowman's space)
Why doen't large negatively charged solutes and plasma proteins get thru the filtration slits?
because the filt slits and BM are negatively charged - repel them
Does low or high sieving coefficient increase filterability?
SC of 1.0 has no restriction
(SC <1.0 does not freely cross barrier)
What are the 2 factors that determine filterability?
1) molecular weight
2) charge
Is anything every reabsorbed (i/o being filtered) across glomerular capillaries?
NO!
Why does hydrostatic pressure not change across glomerular capillaries?
efferent arterioles can constrict keeping hydro pressure constant across cap
What is the "protective" effect of AII?
it constricts efferent arterioles more than afferent, thus keeping GFR high during high vasoconstrictor states
What 2 things estimate changes in GFR?
1) serum creatine
2) blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Why do you have to be careful giving diabetics ACE inhibitors?
because they preferentially dilate efferent arterioles - drastically decrease GFR - watch for kidney failure!
What does symp NS do to aff and eff arterioles in the kidney?
preferentially constrict afferent
decrease RBF
decrease GFR
What does AII do to aff and eff arterioles in the kidney?
preferentially constricts efferent (protects GFR)
decrease RPF
increase GFR
What does ANP do to aff and eff arterioles in the kidney?
dilates afferent more than it constricts afferent
increase RPF
really increase GFR
What does prostaglandins do to aff and eff arterioles in the kidney?
preferentially dilates afferents
increase RPF
increase GFR