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55 Cards in this Set

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ONE WAY TO CLASSIFY DISEASE IS BY OCCURRENCE ( HOW FREQUENTLY DOES THE DISEASE OCCUR WITHIN THE POPULATION) WHAT IS ANOTHER WAY THAT DISEASE CAN BE CLASSIFIED
CLASSIFICATION BY PATTERN OF OCCURRENCE
LIST THE SIX PATTERNS OF OCCURRENCE
SPORADIC
ENDEMIC
HYPERDEMIC
EPIDEMIC
OUTBREAK
PANDEMIC
DEFINE SPORADIC
THE DISEASE OCCURS AT IRREGULAR INTERVALS
DEFINE ENDEMIC
THE DISEASE OCCURS AT A LOW, STEADY FREQUENCY IN THE POPULATION
DEFINE HYPERDEMIC
THE DISEASE SHOWS A GRAUALLY MILD INCREASE ABOVE EXPECTED LEVELS
DEFINE EPIDEMIC
THE DISEASE SHOWS A RAPID, DRAMATIC INCREASE ABOVE EXPECTED LEVELS
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF SPORADIC ( A CLASSIFICATION BY PATTERN OF OCCURENCE)
TYPHOID FEVER, MEINGOCOCCAL MENINGITAS
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF ENDEMIC ( A CLASSIFICATION BY PATTERN OF OCCURENCE)
COLD AND FLU
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF HYPERDEMIC( A CLASSIFICATION BY PATTERN OF OCCURENCE)
COLD/FLU IN THE WINTER
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF EPIDEMIC ( A CLASSIFICATION BY PATTERN OF OCCURENCE)
AIDS, THE FLU IN SOME YEARS
WHAT ARE THE TWO KINDS OF EPIDEMIC
COMMON SOURCE EPIDEMIC

PROPOGATED EPIDEMIC
DEFINE COMMON SOURCE EPIDEMIC
ALL INFECTED INDIVIDUALS COME INTO CONTACT WITH SOME CONTAMINATED SOURCE ie CONTAMINATED FOOD OR WATER
DEFINE PROPOGATED EPIDEMIC
INFECTION BEGINS WHEN ONE INFECTED INDIVIDUAL ( INDEX CASE) IS INTRODUCED INTO THE POPULATION THEN IT SPREADS THROUGH THE POPULATION
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF OUTBREAK( A CLASSIFICATION BY PATTERN OF OCCURENCE)
OCCURRENCE OF UNEXPECTED DISEASE, OFTEN OCCURS IN A SMALL GEOGRAPHIC RANGE OR WITHIN A LIMITED PORTION OF THE POPULATION
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF AN OUTBREAK
EBOLA , SARS
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF PANDEMIC ( A CLASSIFICATION BY PATTERN OF OCCURENCE)
THE DISEASE OCCURS AT EPIDEMIC LEVELS OVER A LARGE GEOGRAPHIC RANGE
GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF A PANDEMIC
AIDS, CHOLERA, PLAGUE
DEFINE DISTRIBUTION
DISTRIBUTION TELLS US HOW THE PATHOGEN SPREADS
DEFINE "SOURCE"
A LOCATION THAT SUPPORTS THE GROWTH OF THE PATHOGEN, FROM WHICH IT CAN BE TRANSMITTED TO A NEW HOST
"SOURCE" IS RELATED TO ___________
DISTRIBUTION
WHAT ARE THE TWO KINDS OF "SOURCE" ( DISTRIBUTION)
ABIOTIC SOURCE

BIOTIC SOURCE
DEFINE ABIOTIC SOURCE
THESE ARE NON-LIVING SOURCES SUCH AS FOOD, WATER, SOIL
DEFINE BIOTIC SOURCE
LIVING SOURCES SUCH AS HUMANS AND ANIMALS
WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON "SOURCE" OF HUMAN DISEASE
HUMANS ARE THE MOST COMMON SOURCE OF DISTRIBUTION AKA A "CARRIER"
WHAT ARE THE FOUR KINDS OF "CARRIERS"
ACTIVE CARRIER

CONVALESCENT CARRIER

INCUBATORY CARRIER

HEALTHY CARRIER
DEFINE "ACTIVE CARRIER"
THE INDIVIDUAL HAS THE PATHOGEN PRESENT AND IS SHOWING THE S/S OF THE DISEASE
DEFINE CONVALESCENT CARRIER
INDIVIDUAL HAS RECOVERED FROM THE S/S , BUT STILL HAS PATHOGEN PRESENT
DEFINE INCUBATORY CARRIER
THE INDIVIDUAL HAS THE PATHOGEN PRESENT, BUT THE INDIVIDUAL WILL NEVER SHOW THE S/S
DEFINE "TRANSMISSION"
TRANSMISSION TELLS US HOW THE PATHOGEN TRAVELS FROM THE "SOURCE" TO A NEW HOST

TRANSMISSION IS A FORM OF "DISTRIBUTION"
LIST THE THREE WAYS A PATHOGEN CAN SPREAD "DISTRIBUTION"
SOURCE

TRANSMISSION

EXIT MECHANISM
LIST THE (4) MAIN ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION
AIRBORNE

DIRECT CONTACT

VEHICLE TRANSMISSION

VECTOR BORNE
DEFINE AIRBORNE ( A "ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION")
THE PATHOGEN BECOMES AIRBORNE FROM THE SOURCE, THEN TRAVELS TO A NEW HOST
HOW MAY AIRBORNE PATHOGENS TRAVEL (2 ) WAYS
DROPLET NUCLEI...TINY DROPLETS USUALLY FROM RESPIRATORY SECRETIONS ( SNEEZING, COUGHING, SPITTING,TALKING)

DUST----> ANTHRAX, STAPH, STREP
DEFINE DIRECT CONTACT ( A "ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION")
TRANSMISSION REQUIRES PHYSICAL CONTACT BTWN THE SOURCE AND A NEW HOST
GIVE EXAMPLES OF DIRECT CONTACT FORMS OF TRANSMISSION
LESIONS, KISSING, SEX, TOUCHING, NURSING, PLACENTA, GIVING BIRTH
DEFINE VEHICLE TRANSMISSION ( A "ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION")
THE PATHOGEN TRAVELS TO A NEW HOST VIA AN INANIMATE CALLED "FOMITES"
FOMITES ARE RELATED TO VEHICLE TRANSMISSION...GIVE EXAMPLES OF FOMITES
NEEDLES, CUP, BEDDING, FORK, CLOTHING , TOWELS
DEFINE VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSION ( A "ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION")
THE PATHOGEN TRAVELS TO A NEW HOST VIA A LIVING INTERMEDIATE CALLED VECTORS
GIVE EXAMPLES OF VECTORS
MOSQUITOS, TICKS, FLEAS, FLIES
WHAT ARE THE (2) KINDS OF VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSION
EXTERNAL VECTOR BORNE

INTERNAL VECTOR BORNE
DEFINE EXTERNAL VECTOR BORNE
THE PATHOGEN IS CARRIED ON THE SURFACE OF THE VECTOR
DEFINE INTERNAL VECTOR BORNE
THE PATHOGEN IS CARRIED INSIDE THE VECTORS BODY ( MAY INVOLVE A LIFE CYCLE CHANGE)
DEFINE EXIT MECHANISM ( A FORM OF DISTRIBUTION)
HOW DID THE PATHOGEN LEAVE THE SOURCE
WHAT ARE THE TWO WAYS THAT PATHOGENS USE AS AN EXIT MECHANISM
PASSIVE ESCAPE

ACTIVE ESCAPE
MOST PATHOGENS EXIT BY __________ ESCAPE
PASSIVE
DEFINE PASSIVE ESCAPE
THE PATHOGENS EXIT WITH BODILY SECRETIONS ( FECES, MUCUS, URINE, PUS) THE PATHOGEN DOES NOT "CHOOSE" TO EXIT
DEFINE "ACTIVE ESCAPE"
WORM SEEKS AN EXIT PORTAL AS AN AVE OF ESCAPE
WHAT /WHO USES ACTIVE ESCAPE AS AN EXIT MECHANISM
SOME PARASITE WORMS
LIST SOME POSSIBLE EXIT PORTALS THAT PARASITE WORMS COULD USE AS A FORM OF ACTIVE ESCAPE
ANUS, MOUTH, NOSE, EARS, EYES, LESION ON THE SKIN
DEFINE "CONTROL"
DETERMINES WHICH INDIVIDUALS IN THE POPULATION ARE THE MOST "AT RISK " FOR A DISEASE
WHAT ARE THE THREE FACTORS THAT AFFECT RISK/SUSCEPTIBILITY
EXPOSURE
HOST DEFENSE MECHANISMS
PATHOGENICITY
DEFINE "EXPOSURE"
THE NUMBER OF PATHOGENS THAT AN INDIVIDUAL WILL COME IN CONTACT WITH
GIVE EXAMPLES OF EXPOSURE
OCCUPATION, GEOGRAPHY, LIFESTYLE, DIET, DRUG USE, SEXUAL ENCOUNTERS
GIVE EXAMPLES OF DEFENSE HOST MECHANISM ( ONE OF THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT RISK/SUSCEPTIBILITY)
AGE, DEPRESSED IMMUNE SYSTEM( STRESS , LACK OF SLEEP, AIDS) GENETICS, VACCINATIONS, MALNUTRITION
DEFINE PATHOGENICITY
THE ABILITY OF A MICROBE TO CAUSE A STATE OF DISEASE ( AKA VIRULENCE )