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17 Cards in this Set

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Cicero: On Old Age
-Entire dialogue is spoken through Cato and he is addresing Scipio and Laelius.
-Essay is dedicated to itus Atticus
-He announces 4 reasons why Old Age is considered unhappy: 1) It withdraws us fro active employments, 2) It impairs physical vigor, 3) it deprives us of nearly all sensual pleausres and 4) it is the verge of death. He refutes all 4 of these reasons.
"there is no greater pleasure than the minds"--all of his reasons relate back to this. Death, according to Socrates: Like a sleep without a dream or transmigration of the soul to a better place. Cicero believes in this second theory, and "if I err, I err willingly."

"Carthago delenda est"--Carthage must be destroyed.
Overview of "The Aeneid" by Vergil
-Vergil was still working on his epic when he died (just editing, book 12 was still meant to be the end)
-He knew that this great epic must follow the framwork of the Homeric poems
-The idea of Destiny is unique in The Aeneid that isnt found in the Homeric poems
-it is riddled with Roman history and Roman values
-DACTYLIC HEXAMETER: has six feet made up of dactyl's and spondie's.
-Vergil's epic is LITERARY: which are more deliberate and subjective than oral epics
The Aeneid: Book I
"He came to Italy by Destiy/ To our Lavinian western shore/"
-Talking about Aeneas, the epic's hero, who is fleeing Troy after the end of the Trojan war (Greek conquered)
-Juno hates Aeneas and the Trojans because the Prophecy holds that they will one day destroy Carthage, which is her favored city (she also hates them because of Paris's-a trojan-decision to give the golden apple to Venus.
-Venus is Aeneas's mother
-The terrible storm threatens the fleet, and Aeneas shows great leadership character "have we not known hard hours before this?"
-when the storm subsides, Venus appears to Aeneas in disguise and tells him about how Dido came to be queen of Carthage. She tells him to go into Carthage, and Dido will welcome them.
-Aeneas and his men meet Dido, he praises her for her hospitatlity, and then they tell her about their journey
The Aeneid: Book II
-"How they took the city"
-Aeneas tells Dido about the taking of Troy by the Greens, starting with the infamous trojan horse.
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The Aeneid: Book IV
-"The passion of the queen"
-The flame of love for Aeneas that Cupid has lit in Dido’s heart only grows while she listens to his sorrowful tale. She hesitates, though, because after the death of her husband, Sychaeus, she swore that she would never marry again.
-Otium=leisure. Dido is overcome by her passion for Aeneas, and things in the Carthage are not getting done.
-"Now to the self-same cave came Dido and the captain of the Trojans" Dido and Aeneas unite (sexually)
-Mercury tells Aeneas that he must not stay in Carthage, he is destined to be elsewhere, so he tries to sneak away. "I sail for Italy not of my own free will" (it is destiny)
-Dido becomes furious: 2 curses "Woman's a thing forever fitful and forever changing"
-Dido kills herself (stabs herself).
The Aeneid: Book VI
-"The World Below"
-Aeneas must go into Dis (the underworld) to talk to his dead father.
"Facilis descensus Averno"-the way downward is easy from Avernus. (but to come back is difficult). A sybil, priestess in the temple of Apollow, tells him how to get into Dis.
-Golden bough=entrance to the underworld.
-He sees Dido in the underworld, and is saddened.
-Describes the different types of people and where they are located in Dis
-Finally meets his father-Anchises
-"Souls for whom a second body is in store" The pythagorean theory about the reincarnation of souls.
-Describes Greeks vs. Romans "Roman, remember by your strength to rule Earth's people--for your arts are to be these: to pacify, to impose the rule of law, to spare the conquered, battle down the proud"
-two exits from the underworld: the horn-one where true shades pass with ease and the gleaming white ivory-through which false dreams are sent.
The Aeneid: Book X
-"the death of Princes"
-2 great deaths occur.
2 sides: Mezentius and his son Lausus fight on the Italian side. The Trojan side is made up of Evander and Pallus
-ARISTEIA: A display of victory "he killed this, then that, than that"--a slew of killings being described.
Pallus: a beautiful warrior
-Turnus (evil tyrant) kills Pallus
"The minds of men are ignorant of fate/and of their future lot, unskilled to keep/"
-Juno creates a false Aeneas so that Turnus will follow him and Aeneas is about the escape the battle
-Aeneas goes to fight Mezentius but Lausus (his son) enters and gets Mezentius out of the fight. Aeneas kills Lausus. Aeneas honors the young man's bravery (contrasts with Turnus's desicration of Pallu's body)
-Mezzentius and Aeneas fight, but Aeneas's sheild is immortal and unbreakable. Mezentius asks Aeneas to bury his body.
The Aeneid: Book XI
-"Debaters and a Warrior Girl"
-the funeral of Pallas and the story of Camilla--the warrior maiden
-Aeneas mourns Pallas. Both sides agree to a truce so that they can bury their dead.
-Camila proves to be one of the greatest warriors, but she killed by Arruns
The Aeneid: Book XII
-Hand to hand combat between Turnus and Aeneas
-Turnus decides to go and fight Aeneas alone for both the kingdom and Lavinia’s hand.
Catullus 64
s an epyllion or "little epic" poem written by Catullus. Catullus' longest poem, it retains his famed linguistic witticisms while expressing an appropriately epic tone.
Though ostensibly concerning itself with the marriage of Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis (parents of the famed Greek Hero Achilles), a sizeable portion of the poem's lines are devoted to the desertion of Ariadne by the legendary Theseus. Told through ecphrasis, or the depiction of events on inanimate objects, the bulk of the poem details Ariadne's agonized solace. Her impassioned vituperations and eventual discovery by the wine-god Bacchus are some of the included plot events.
The meter of the poem is dactylic hexameter, a meter associated with epics such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.

Odi et amo= I hate and (yet) I love
Peleus: Marries Thetis, the sea nymph, and becomes the father of Achilles
Thetis: A sea nymph (silver footed) who marries the mortal Peleus. The wedding is celebrated on Mount Pelion and all the gods attend.
Theseus: A legendary king of Athens.
Ariadne: daughter of King Minos, helped Thesus overcome the Minotaur.
Catullus, Horace and Propertius
-Catullus: more unique and emotionally driven. Not as concerned with form (elegiac poetry). His poems revolve around Lesbia. His poetry is very intense and passionate and sometimes obscene (sexually)
-Horace: More in love with the actual craft of poetry. Unlike Catullus, he doesnt have a single love (liked high class courtesians). He is more eloquent and formal in his style. His poetry often involve the importance of "seizing the day" and they contain more historical content. His poetry also looks to the future
Propertius: a combination of Horace and Catullus--he combines the articulation of Horace with the emotion of Catullus. Much of his poetry revolves around Cynthia, and like Catullus, he portrays her differently in different poems, depending on how he is feeling about her at the time. Sometimes he calls her his muse, and he also describes her as a very independant and determined woman--but Propertius fears this independence. He also questions her fidelity (like Catullus). Propertius calls himself the first of the Callimichean poets and refers to many Callimichean ideals (aka Untraveled roads) and he hates "the public way".
The Satires of Juvenal
-Juvenal was a stoic who thought that human behavior was sordid, vulgar and disgusting (but not evil).
-"Salva Indignatio"-Fierce indignation (describes the type of satires he wrote)
-Under Domician rule, free writing was oppressed. When he died, Juvenal started writing against the evil world
-Satire is: an attack through ridicule. It is the one genre that Romans can claim to be their own. "Satura guidem tota nostra est"- satire indeed is all ours"
-the three T's of satire: Target, Tone, Technique
The first Satire: On this form of writing
-describes why he wants to write satire.
"Why fool with those frivolous stories"--he claims that he does not want to write about mythical stories when real life truth is stronger and more important, and just as entertaining.
-talks about the evil of humans and the world--he is prejudice against almost everyone, especially the Greeks.
-He claims that you will be safe writing about epic allusions and myths
-He claims he is going to use Dead names for his satires because you cannot name living people
-Hylas--the waterboy of Hercules
-Lucilius--most famous ancient satirist
The third Satire: Against the city of Rome
-criticizing Rome and its treatment of the poor. He claims that Rome has become too "Greekized"
-"Ah but that wouldnt be true if you lived content in the country"
-In Rome, the architecture and houses are poor, the nighttime/city is dangerous, and the disparity betweent the rich and the poor is HUGE.
"Happy the men of old, those primitive generations under the tribunes and kings, when Rome had only one jailhouse"--allusion to Golden Age
The tenth Satire: On the vanity of Human Wishes
According to Juvenal, people shouldnt pray for: Wealth Fame, Power, A Long Life, or Beauty.
-What we should pray fore: "A healthy mind in a healthy body--"Mens Sana in Corpore Sano"--a spirit unafraid of death."

"I show you what you can give to yourself: only through virtue lies the certain road to a life that is blessed and tranquil"
-Juvenal is very stoic in these statements
The Golden Ass, by Apuleius
-Apuleius was born in Madaura (North Africa) and he was interested in magic
-Lucius is the main character of the "Golden Ass" and he is punished for his obsession with sex and magic (turned into an ass)

Three main stages of the story:
1) Lucius as a human investigates all that is anti-human (magic and mystical).
2) As a real beast, he can discover his correct humanity
3) He overcomes the conflict of human and beastly aspirations
Story of Cupid and Psyche
A story within the story of "the Golen Ass" and the most famous tale. It is about the transfer (for both Psyche and Lucius) from lower sexual desires to higher virtues of love.
-Analgous (archetypal) story, akin to Beauty and the Beast
-About the psychic development of the feminine: evolution into the complete "Annima"
-The complete woman is called an "Annima", and a woman is not a fulfilled Annima until she undergoes a series of trials and tribulations
-the two sisters are the SHADOW ARCHITYPE in the story--they block Psyche from her development into the complete annima
-In order to become the fulfilled Annima, Psyche must reject her sisters (the shadow) and accept male help because the true annima as a masculine side.
-In the wake of her tests, she tries killing herself many times
-one of her tests is to go into the underworld (dis).