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102 Cards in this Set

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Pietas
Duty & Devotion
Creusa
Wife of Aeneas who he leave at Troy (she dies)
Augustus
Julius Caeser; heir to Rome
Penates
Patron Gods of the storeroom/household
Helenus
Prophecized Aeneas would found Rome; son of Priam
Sychaeus
Didos first husband who was killed by her brother Pygmalion
Iris
Personal messenger for Hera
Styx
River; boundary between Earth & the Underworld
Elysian Fields
Final Resting place for the souls of heroes
Latinus
wife queen of Latins; kills herself
Pallas
son of Evander dies by Turnus
Juturna
Turnus' sister; goddess of fountains, wells, and springs
Tiber
River in Italy
Humanitas
a good human
Ascanius
Son of Aeneas
Anchises
Father of Aeneas
Laocoon
Warned Trojans about the wooden horse, and was killed by a serpent when he threw a spear at it
Cypris
Another name for Aphrodite; goddess of love, lust, and beauty
Andromache
wife of Hector; marries Helenus when he dies
larbas
Libyan King; one of Dido's suitors
Palinurus
helmsman of a ship
Cumae
Entrance to the Underworld
Lethe
River of Hades; "forgetfulness" or "concealment"; must drink from river before reincarnation
Marcellus
Future ruler of Rome; Aeneas sees in the underworld
Turnus
Ruler of the Rutulians in Italy; Suitor that Amata wants Lavinia to marry
Pyrrhus
Neoptolemus; Son of Achilles; kills Priam
Evander
King of Arcadians; gentle and welcoming people (not very rich)
Lausus
young son of Mezentius; fights alongside his father on behalf of Turnus; Aeneas kills him, but with compassion
Imperium
Power
Iulus
another name for Ascanius
Pax Romana
The Roman Peace
Sinon
Greek warrior who pretends to be abandoned to get wooden horse into Troy
Anna
the sister of Dido
Dido
First Queen of Carthage; Aeneas' lover who kills herself
Charon
ferryman who transports the dead who have had a proper burial (or those who have waited 100 years) across the river Styx
Cerberos
three headed dogs that guards the gates of Hades
Erato
Greek muse of love poetry who Virgil invokes for the second half of the poem
Lavinia
Daughter of Latinus (King of Latins)
Camilla
woman warrior who fights the Trojans w/ Turnus and his men (Latins)
Latium
the Trojan's promised land in Italy
Mezentius
Etruscan king dethroned and driven into exile by his people; father of Lausus and ally of Turnus
Aeneas
Son of Anchises & Venus, and a member of the royal family of Troy. Escapes Troy and leads the refugees to their promised land in Italy
Sibyl
a prophet priestess
Rutulian
Italian people whose ruler was Turnus
Cybele
also called Rhea, sister of Saturn and mother of Gods; rides chariot drawn by lions
Amata
wife of Latinus, mother of Lavinia; Queen of Latins; kills herself?
Carthage
city in North Africa; rivals of Rome. Dido is the founder; leading her refugees there from the atrocities of her brother
Sicily
aka Trinacria or "three-cornered"
Daedalus
craftsman who built the Labyrinth to contain Minotaur. Escapes prison with son Icarus by making wings of feathers and wax
Alecto
one of the furies
Virtus
virtue, character, excellence
"I sing of arms of a man: his fate had made him fugitive; he was the first to journey from the coasts of Troy as far as Italy and the Lavinian Shores. Across the lands and waters he was battered beneath the violence of High Ones, for the savage Juno's unforgetting anger; and many sufferings were in his war"
Epic Theme; giving an overview about the epic journey of Aeneas and his Trojan followers
"Tell me the reason, Muse: what was the wound to her divinity, so hurting her that she, the queen of gods, compelled a man remarkable for the goodness to endure so many crises, meet so many trials? Can such resentment hold the minds of gods?"
Virgil's invocation of the Muse to help him tell the story of Aeneas' hardships
"extremely rich and, when it came to waging war, most fierce. This land was Juno's favorite-it is said- more dear than her own Samos; here she kept her chariot and armor; even then the goddess had this hope and tender plan: for Carthage to become the capital of nations, if the fates would just consent"
Anger of Juno towards the Trojans, and her love for Carthage. Effort of Building Rome.
"He does not stay his hand until he stretches, victoriously, seven giant bodies along the ground, in number like his galleys. This done, he seeks the harbor and divides the meat among his comrades. And he shares the wine that had been stowed by kind Acestes in casks along the shores of Sicily: the wine that, like a hero, the Sicilian had given to the Trojans when they left. Aeneas soothes their melancholy hearts."
The Ultimate Trojan destiny
"He sees the wars of Troy set out in order: the battles famous now through all the world, the sons of Atreus and of Priam, and Achilles, savage enemy to both. He halted. As he wept he cried: "Achates where on this earth is there a land, a place that does not know our sorrows?"
The paintings of the Trojan War that Aeneas comes across in Carthage
"The man you seek is here. I stand before you, Trojan Aeneas, torn from Libyan waves. O you who were alone in taking pity of the unutterable trials of Troy, who welcome us as allies to your city and home- a remnant left by Greeks"
Aeneas Self-revleation to Dido, the queen of Carthage, when she asks to see the leader of the refugees
"Changed in form and feature, come instead of sweet Ascanius and, with his gifts, inflame the queen to madness and insinuate a fire in Dido's very bones. For Venus is much afraid of that deceptive house and of the Tyrians with their double tongues. The thought of savage Juno burns; by night her care returns. Her words are for winged love."
Cupid becomes Ascanius in order to instill love in Queen Dido and make her fall in love with Aeneas.
"No, come, my guest," she calls, "and tell us all things from the first beginning: Grecian guile, your people's trial, and then your journeyings. For now the seventh summer carries you, a wanderer, across the lands and waters"
A Royal request from Dido for Aeneas to share his story of his hardships so far.
"O Queen- too terrible for tongues the pain you ask me to renew, the tale of how the Danaans could destroy the wealth of Troy, that kingdom of lament: for I myself saw these sad things; I took large part in them. What Myrmidon or what Dolopian, what soldier even of the harsh Ulysses, could keep from tears in telling such a story? But if you long so much to learn our suffering, to hear in brief the final calamity of Troy- although my mind, remembering, recoiled in grief, and trembles, I shall try"
Aeneas complies with Queen Dido's request to tell of the Trojan's hardships
"He hurries from the citadel's high point excitedly; and with a mob wound him, from far off he calls out: 'Poor citizens, what wild insanity is this? Do you believe the enemy have sailed away? I fear the Greek, even when they bring gifts.' and as he spoke hurled his massive shaft with heavy force against the side, against the rounded, jointed belly of the beast."
Laocoon condemns the wooden horse and warns that the Trojans are being tricked by the Greeks
"when two snakes with endless coils, from Tenedos strike out across the tranquil deep, resting on the waters, advancing shoreward side by side; their breasts erect among the waves. At first each snake entwines the tiny bodies of his two sons in an embrace, then feasts its fangs on their defenseless limbs. The pair next seized [him]"
Laocoon and his sons are eaten by two giant sea snakes which serves as an omen that the wooden horse whould be taken into Troy to appease Minerva.
"The horse, thrown open, gives them back to air. They exit gladly from the hollow timber. The guards cut down, the gates thrown open, they can welcome their companions and gather the conspirators in one"
"Within my sleep, before my eyes there seemed to stand, in tears and sorrow, [he] as he once was, dismembered by the dragging chariot, black with bloodied dust."
The Greeks begin to attack Troy when Sinon releases them from the Wooden Horse; Hector appears to Aeneas in a dream
"This is no time for such defense and help, not even were my Hector here himself. Come near and pray: this altar shall yet save us all, or you shall die together with us.' When this was said she took the old man to her and drew him down upon the sacred seat"
Pyrrhus kills Priam's sons and then kills Priam on his altar
"In my mind a fire is burning; anger spurs me to avenge my falling land, to exact the debt of crime. I shall have my praise for blotting out a thing of evil, for my punishing of one who merits penalties"
Aeneas is tempted to kill Helen who is the cause of all the death and destruction of the Trojan war.
"And while she caught and held my right hand fast, she spoke these words to me with her rose lips: 'My son, what bitterness has kindled this fanatic anger?"
Venus rebukes and enlightens Aeneas that he should take his family and flea the city
"I again in vain called for [her]; my shouting filled the streets. Before my eyes stood the effigy and grieving shade. 'Oh sweet husband, is there any use in giving wat to such fanatic sorrow? For this would never come to pass without the gods' decree"
Aeneas Searches for Creusa and comes across her spirit who comforts him
"How can you struggle against a love that is so acceptable? Have you forgotten the land you settled, those who hem you in? And what a kingdom you will see with the Trojan arms beside us"
Anna tells Dido that she should marry Aeneas in order to create a great and powerful nation and to follow her heart & love him.
"They reached the same cave during the rain mixed with hail. For neither how things seen nor how they are deemed move [her] now, and she no longer thing of furtive love. For [she] calls it marriage, and with this name she covers up her fault."
Dido and Aeneas end up in the same cave and make love during the storm that Juno planned in order to unite the two.
"Between the earth and the skies she flies by night, screeching across the darkness, and she never closes her eyes in gentle sleep. By day she sits as sentinel on some steep roof or on high towers, frightening vast cities; for she holds fast to falsehood and distortion as often as to messages of truth."
No evil travels faster than Rumor. The rumor is traveling that Dido and Aeneas have abandoned there duties as leaders for their lustful realationship
"Are you now laying the foundation of high Carthage as servant to a woman, building her a splendid city here? Are you forgetful of what is your own kingdom, your own fate? The very god of gods, whose power sways both heaven and earth, sends me down to you to carry out these commands"
Jupiter sends Mercury to tell Aeneas that he has wasted enough time in Carthage and must be on his way to fulfill his destiny
"And now the Gods own messenger, sent down by Jove himself- I call as witness both our lives- has brought his orders through the sweift air. My own eyes have seen the god as he was entering our walls in broad daylight. My ears have drunk his words. No longer set yourself and me afire. Stop your quarrel. It is not my own free will that leads me to Italy."
Aeneas tells Dido the demands of the gods that must be followed
"no less than this, the hero: he is battered on this side and on that by assiduous words; he feels care in his mighty chest, and yet his mind cannot be moved; the tears fall useless."
Dido is abandoned and Anna tells her that Aeneas is going to follow his destiny and nothing can change this
"Lay down your head and steal your tired eyes from trials; and for a brief while I myself will take your place, your duties. That sudden rest had just begun to let his limbs fall slack when the god cast him headlong into the limpid waters."
Palinurus the Helmsman succumbs to sleep and is lost into the sea as a sacrifice for safe passage of the ship to Italy.
"Here he was returned to earth and here he dedicated his oar-like wings to you, Apollo; here he built a splendid temple in your honor."
Aeneas and his followers arrive to Italy and build an altar to honor Apollo.
"If the fates have summoned you, the bough will break off freely, easily; but otherwise, no power can overcome it, hard iron cannot help to tear it off."
In order to go to see Anchises in the underworld, the Sibyl tells Aeneas that he must obtain the golden bough from a tree in the forest.
"The Sibyl, threw him a honeyed cake of wheat with drugs that bring on sleep. His triple mouths yawn wide with rapid hunger as he clutches the cake she cast. His giant back falls slack along the ground; his bulk takes all the cave. And when the beast is buried under sleep, Aeneas gains the entrance swiftly, leaves the riverbank from which no one returns."
The Sibyl subdued Cerberus, the three headed watch-dog of Hades so that Aeneas could pass
"Among them, wandering with her wound still fresh, Dido. He wept and talked to Dido with tender love, but Dido just turned away with her eyes to the ground"
Aeneas encounters Dido in the Fields of Mourning, and although he shows kind love and pity for Dido, she ignores him and turns to her former husband, Sychaeus.
"And when he saw him cross the meadow, he stretched out both hands eagerly, the tears ran down his cheeks, these words fell from his lips"
Aeneas and Anchises reunite in the underworld
"First each of us must suffer his own Shade; then we are sent through wide Elysium- a few of us will gain the Fields of Gladness- until the finished cycle of the ages, but all the rest, when they have passed time's circle for a millennium, are summoned by the god Lethe in a great assembly that they may return to earth free from memomry.
Anchises explains the cycle through the underworld to Aeneas
"You see double plumes upon his crest: his parent Mars already marks him out with his own emblem for the upper world. My son, it is beneath his auspicies that famous Rome will make her boundaries as broad as earth itself, will make her spirit the equal of Olympus."
Anchises explains to Aeneas that Rome is intended to be the most powerful nation and expand its boundaries as far as possible.
"O boy whom we lament, if only you could break the bonds of fate and be Marcellus. With full hands, give me lilies; let me scatter these purple flowers, with these gifts, at least, be generous to my descendant's spirit, complete this service, although it be useless."
This is talking about the loss of young Marcellus
"And now the sea was red with sunrays, saffron Aurora shone in her rose chariot; the winds fell off, and from the high air every harsh blast was ended suddenly, the oars beat down against the waters' sluggish marble. Then from his ship Aeneas spies a spacious forest. The Trojan sees the yellow sands and rapid eddies. And varied birds that knew the river's channel and banks flew through the grove"
This describes the view of the Tiber River that Aeneas and his men can see from their ship.
"Now, Erato, be with me, let me sing of kings and times and of the state of things in ancient Latium when the invaders first beached their boat's upon Ausonia's coasts, and how it was that they began to battle. Oh goddess, help your poet. I shall tell of dreadful wars, of men who struggle, tell of cheiftains goaded to the grave by passion, of Tuscan troops and all Hesperia in arms. A greater theme is born for me; I try a greater labor."
Virgil invokes Erato to help him tell the second part of the Aeneid.
"These they used as platters, heaped with country fruits. And here it happened, when their scanty food was done, that- hungry still- they turned upon the thin cakes with their teeth; they dared profane and crack and gnaw the fated circles of their crust with hand and jaw; they did not spare the quartered surfaces of their flat loaves... "We have consumed our tables, after all"
Ascanius laughs and jokes that they really have eaten their tables to fulfill the prophecy and therefore must be in the place that they are meant to build their new home on.
"May the gos now favor our attempt, their augury! For, Trojan, you shall have what you have asked; I do not scorn you gifts. While I am king, you shall not lack the wealth of this rich land or Troy's abundance. Only let Aeneas approach in person, if he longs for us and wants to join as a friend, to bear the name of ally. He need never fear our friendly presence... I have a daughter whom the oracless of my paternal shrine and many omens sent down from heaven will not let me wed to any husband from our nations... then chooses horses from his herds: three hundred stood sleek in their high stalls. At once he calls for those wing-footed ones to be led out"
Latinus welcomes the Trojans very kindly and in peace offering them many gifts such as horses and chariots.
"You, virgin, born of Night, do me this service this fitting labor: do not let my honor and fame be hurt or beaten; do not let the Trojans have their way with King Latinus by marriage or besiege Italian borders. For you can arm for battle brothers, though they feel at one, and ruin homes with hatred. Let sudden quarrel spur young men to want, demand, and seize the sword."
Juno's Threat invoking Allecto to create havoc and continue making hardships for Aeneas and the Trojans.
"And saying this, she cast a torch at [him] fixing the firebrand within his breast. and there it smoked with murky light. Great fear shatters his sleep, sweat bursts from all his body and bathes his bones and limbs. Insane he raves for arms, he searches bed and halls for weapons. Lust for the sword and war's damnable madness are raging in him and - above all -anger: just as when burning, loudly cracking twigs are heaped beneath a seething caldron's ribs"
This is when Allecto fills Turnus with rage to defend his honor and the promise of marriage to Lavinia against Aeneas.
"Now inflamed with love of praise, had aimed an arrow from his curving bow; some god did not allow his faltering hand to fail; the shaft was driven, hissing loudly; it pierced both flank and belly"
Iulus (Ascanius) wounds the sacred deer of Tyrrhus which starts a lot of trouble for Ascanius.
"With these, leads bands of horsemen, squadrons bright with brazen armor. A warrior whose hands have never grown accustomed to distaffs of the basket of Minerva"
This gives a description of Camilla, the woman warrior, who fight beside Turnus along with the Latins.
"How willingly I recognize, receive you, the bravest of the Teucrians! How I recall the words, the voice, the face of great Anchises! And I still remember Priam. I shall see that you leave happy, with aid; I'll help you as I can. Meanwhile, since you have come as friends, rejoice with us and celebrate this annual rite, which it would be sinful to put off; and now the feast of the comrades waits for you."
Evander warmly welcomes the Trojans and offers his alliance to Aeneas who is looking for help against Turnus and the Latins.
"just as the morning star, whom Venus loves above the fire of any other star, when he, bathed in the Ocean's wave, lifts up his sacred head high in heaven and dissolves the darkness. The mothers tremble, standing on the walls , and watch the cloud of dust, the gleaming brass. The armed troops cut across the underbrush. A shout goes up; they form a line; the hoofs' four-footed thunder shakes the crumbling plain."
As Evander's men follow Aeneas to fight the Latins, the mothers of the warriors tremble in fear and anxiety that their children are going off to war.
"Therefore, I, who before asked nothing of you, come as suppliant, a mother for her son, to beg arms of the god whom I adore... And now if you prepare for battle, if the war is what you want, then I can promise whatever care is in my art, by bellows and molten electrum. Now do not entreat me anymore or put your power in doubt."
Venus is asking Vulcan to make a shield to protect Aeneas, she says that she has never asked anything of him, but he says she doesn't ever have to question whether or not he will do something for her.
"For the lord of Fire had wrought the story of Italy, the Romans' Victories, since he was not unskilled in prophecy or one who cannot tell the times to come. There he had set the generations of Ascanius, and all their wars, in order. There too, he made a mother-wolf, reclining in Mars' green cavern, at play beside her, twin boys were hanging at her dugs; fearless, they sucked their mother."
On Aeneas' shield, Vulcan had forged the future of Rome including Romulus and Remus, and Augustus Caesar leading the Italians into battle.
"Aeneas marvels at his mother's gift, the scenes on Vulcan's shield; and he is glad for all these images, though he does no know what they mean. Upon his shoulder he lifts up the fame and fate of his sons' sons."
Aeneas is amazed and pleased with the great gift from Venus and Vulcan, but is unaware that he carries the future of Rome into battle.
"Wretched, she runs out and, with a woman's wailing, tearing he hair and heedless of men's presence and the darts and danger, mad, she races toward the walls' front line Then she fills the heaven with her cries: 'Is this the way I see you? YOu, evening peace of my last years, cruel son, how could you leave me here alone? Sent out on such a dangerous task, you did not even let me, your mother, in my misery, say last farewells... Her wailing moved their minds; a moan of sorrow passed through all; their force is broken, numbed for war."
This is when Nisus and Euryalus are killed by the Latins. Euryalus' mother is absolutely devastated by the news that her son has died in battle.
"O Arcadians, remember, take my words back to Evander: just as he deserved, I send him Pallas! Whatever comfort lies in burial I freely give. This said, his left foot pressed upon the body, and he ripped off the ponderous belt of Pallas, on which a scene of horror was engraved."
This is when Turnus kills Palas, the young son of Evander sent to aid Aeneas and the Trojans in war. Turnus cruelly takes the belt off of Pallas' dead body as a war prize which he will pay for later.
"My son, was I held fast by such delight in life that I let my own seed- instead of me- give way before an enemy's right hand? Am I, a father, saved by these your wounds?"
This is when Aeneas wounds Mezenitus who is forced to retreat. Aeneas then kills Lausus, the son of Mezenitus, but shows sympathy for the young man. Mezenitus' horse then dies along with Mezenitus when he faces Aeneas in battle again (after begging Aeneas to bury him after his death).
"Next, Aethon, Pallas' warhorse, weeping, comes, his trappings laid aside, his muzzle wet with heavy tears."
Pallas' faithful horse, Aethon, weeps in mourning Pallas' death
"Clinging and weeping and keening; he can hardly force a passage through his sorrow for his voice: "O Pallas, this was not the pledge you gave your father, to commit yourself with more caution to cruel Mars. I might have known how much new fame in arms can do, how very sweet is the glory of the first encounter."
After Pallas is killed in battle, Evander and his kingdom mourn his loss and have a grand funeral procession for Pallas
"Stop at last, give way to what I now ask: do not let so great a sorrow gnaw at you in silence; do not let your sweet lips so often press your bitter cares on me. This is the end. You have harassed the Trojans over land and wave, havve kindled brutal war, outraged Latinus' home, and mingled grief and marriage: you cannot pass beypnd this point."
Jupiter convinces Juno to give up her grudge against the Trojans and end the war and hardships of all involved. As part of the deal, Troy's name is lost and the Latin name and Language remains.
"His words moved him more and more until high on his shoulder he made out the luckless belt of Palas. And when his eyes drank in this plunder, this memorial of brutal grief, Aeneas, aflame with rage- his wrath was terrible- cried: "How can you who wear the spoils of my dear comrades now escape me? It is Pallas who strikes, who sacrifices you, who takes this payment from your shameless blood." Relentless he sinks his sword into the chest of his enemy. His limbs fell slack with chill; and with a moan his life, resentful, fled to Shades below."
Aeneas almost shows pity on Turnus until he becomes enraged when he sees Pallas belt being worn as a war prize by Turnus. He then kills he in a fit of rage and revenge.