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141 Cards in this Set

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Naos
room for temple
Pronaos
porch of temple
Peristyle
colonnade surrounding naos and 2 porches
Peripteral
temple w/a peristyle
Dipteral
double peristyles (8 columns along front)
altars were placed how relative to temples?
always to the east of the temple
Doric order
large temples and peripteral ones built like this; height of columns 4-6x diameter on top step; simple capitals; frieze had triglyphs and metopes; sharp flutes
Ionic order
elaborate dipteral temples made like this; slimmer columns; had base below and elaborate capitals; undivided frieze; smooth flutes
flutes
vertical grooves cut into both Doric and Ionic columns
Anaxagoras
5th cent. BC; had philosophical ideas like the law of conservation of matter; ideas about refraction
Demokritos
430 BC; matter consisted of infinite number of indivisibile atoms
Greeks didn't advance to scientific law or practical application of theories b/c of 3 reasons;
1) they relied more on mind than senses; lacked instruments to support and improve senses
2) preferred abstract theory rather than practical activity
3) late 5th cent; thinking moved away from natl. world to human beings
Plato
Theory of Forms- our world is imperfect copy of perfect world; concerned with question of good men and good state
Athenian education
boys went to school from 7-14; learned reading, writing, simple arithmetic by grammatistes; teachers had low status
paidagogos
slave assigned to follow student around and serve as male example to him
music-teacher; taught how to play lyre, oboe, and how to sing
kitharistes; kithara, aulos
general name of education provided by grammatistes and kitharistes
mousike
instructor of athletic training
paidotribes; students given training for sports, pentathlon, body care, military.
sophists
lecturers who travelled from city to city, teaching rhetoric, and other subjects not covered by curriculum; non-Athenian; ex: Protagoras of Abdera (450 BC); provided higher education through study of oratory and rhetoric
Socrates
disagreed with sophists ideas of focus on practical and useful, not on morality; believed men were ignorant, and had to realize this; encouraged his students to question, misunderstood as a sophist; accused of undermining religion and corrupting minds of youth and so was put to death through hemlock in 399 BC
Greek agriculture based on 3 main crops
olives, grain, grapes
Greeks arrived during Bronze Age in this year
2000 BC
Middle Bronze Age
tools made of bronze (3000-1000 BC); learned to use iron
Late Bronze Age
1600-1100 BC; oral culture
largest Aegean island to where Greeks first moved in 2000 BC
Crete
Sir Arthur Evans
discovered Minoan culture on Knossos in 2nd milennium BC
Carl Blegan
excavated a palace in Pylos; thought it to be Nestor's Palace; discovered Mycenaean culture
Linear scripts A and B
found in Knossos; Linear B- deciphered by Michael Ventrist, found to be Greek; Minoans wrote in Linear A (undeciphered)
"relieving triangle"
light triangle stone in archways to keep pressure off other stones
grave circle/ shaft graves
shaft graves- where king's mask found from Late Bronze Age
Minoan/Mycenean art
Minoan art- peaceful, bull symbols; bull-leaping
Mycenean art- military, violent, images of men with spears and shields
"beehive tombs"
connical shaped underground chambers where kings/queens buried: "corbal construction"
Nestor's Palace
13th cent. BC; destroyed by fire in about 1200; tablets found in Linear B used for record-keeping
frescoes
drawings/murals on walls; of lions, etc.
Schliemann
thought found remains of Troy from 1300 BC
Troy/Ilion
Troy 6-7 (during Bronze Age)- probably accurate Troy; built 1800 BC; burned in 1280; destroyed by earthquake
Dark Age
1100-800 BC; economy dropped b/c of wars; simple communities arose; Doric dialect of Greece spoken
Differences between Minoan/Mycenean culture
Minoans: centered on island of Crete; not violent; no fortification walls; peace-loving; didn't feel threatened; focused on female goddess
Mycenean: centered from mainland; idealized war; war frescoes
When were Iliad/Odyssey written?
750 BC by Homer; written about a time well before his time; has elements of late Bronze Age and Dark Age
vowels were invented in:
700 BC
God's roles in Odyssey
Poseidon- doesn't want Odysseus to succeed
Athena- Odysseus's major helper; takes on disguise as Mentor
Zeus- confused as to which side to take
Outline of events in Odyssey
1) return from Troy
2) Kikones (O's men plunder land until Kikones attack them; lose 6 men per ship)
3) Lotos-Eaters (eating lotos makes you forget intentions; appeal of giving up, stopping painful adventure)
4) Kylopes (esp. Polyphemus; O and men escape by grabbing on to sheep, after P's been blinded)
5) Aiolos -(gives them winds to help on their journey, but when they open bag too soon, refuses to help again)
6) Laistrygones (Antiphates the king and his wife want to eat the men)
7) Kirke (witch goddess; turns men into pigs; magic doesn't work on O b/c Hermes gave him moly to eat; live here for 1 yr)
8) Land of Souls (went to see Tieresias)
9) Seirenes (singing lured men- earwax in all of their ears; O- tied up so could hear it)
10) Skylla -(monster that can eat 6 men altogether)
11) Cattle of Helios (told not to eat it, but they do)
12) Kharybdis (whirlpool- O must hold on to tree for long time)
13) Kalypso (keeps O for 9 years; offers him immortality)
14) Skeria - (where O finds Nasicaa, king's daughter, goes into town, tells them of who he his, they send him back to Ithaka)
15) Ithaka (disguises as beggar, fights off 108 suitors)
reoccuring themes
-hospitality "zenia"- hospitality to strangers- traveler can be God in disguise
-perseverance- importance of home and family
-human faults
-portrayal of female characters as dangerous (ex: Clytemnestra kills Agamemnon; Circe= seductive; Penelope- unstitches quilt)
-loyalty- disloyal get severely punished
-recognition- of Odysseus by Telemachos, Eurycleia, Argos, Eumaios and Philoitios, suitors, Penelope, Laertes
Greek alphabet introduced in
750 BC
Homer
700 BC
Sappho, Alcaeus
600 BC
Greeks called outsiders:
barbarians (barbaroi)
mother city (what Corinth was to Syracuse)
metropolis
elegaic poetry written by
Tyrtaeus, Theognis, Archilochus, Solon
iambic poetry written by
Archilochus, Solon
lyric poetry written by
Sappho, Alcaeus, Pindar
voodoo ceremony/strict oath taken by people of this place
Thera in 7th century
Theognis
6th century poet; conservative aristocrat; wrote about changing status in society; snobbish view of virtue; "good people" were old aristocrats; "bad people"- rich people w/land, but not aristocrats; upset that classes are getting mixed up; money root of social evil; writes to Kyrnos; believes good qualities are innate, genetic
Alcaeus
from Mytilene in Lesbos; 600 BC; lyric poetry; "State of Ship" metaphor; wrote about isolation from community; saw a beauty-contest; blames Helen for war
Archilochus
from Peros; (accompanied by lyre); claims to be soldier and poet; talks bout self-sufficiency; makes fun of idea of risking life for honor; says would throw away shield and save own life; says he didn't admire Gyges, rich king of Lydia; practical as opposed to idealistic view of war
Sappho
600 BC from Lesbos (Mytilene) ; writes about lost love; Helen reminds her of her love; emotional progress in form of prayer: 1) get gods attention by using different titles and praises, 2) remind God of history between you and divinity (sacrifices, favors done, etc), 3) ask favor/request; writes about love, not society- uses nature descriptions, sensuous
Solon
594-3 BC came into power; says greed leads to problems; whole community succeeds when peace is maintained; Zeus will punish injustice; considered founder of Athenian democracy; left after decided he couldn't change laws
Tyrtaeus
poems about fighting; lived in 7th century BC in Sparta; believed in citizen's dedication to city; bravery in battle best trait; military fighting connected to honor, tied to community, not indiv. glory
phalanx
military technique where Spartan males go into battle shoulder to shoulder; successful technique; developed in Dark Ages before democracy
helots
may have been Dorian descendants; worked as slaves b/c had to give all agricultural products to Spartans
hoplites
soldiers equipped w/full set of arms; the shield made a soldier a hoplite
Olympic games
begun in 776 BC
temple of Hera built in
7th cent. BC; Doric order
temple of Zeus built in
5th cent. BC; all temples faced East
olympic sports included
boxing, discus throwing, jumping (standing long jump)
Pindar
498; from Thebes, wrote songs w/stanzas for choruses; Hypoclaeus won Pythian games (from Thessaly)- Pindar was asked to write song for him
Pythian games
in honor of Apollo
Kylon's failed coup (attempted coup d'etat, tried to become a tyrant) - occurred in this year
630 BC; wanted to be unelected ruler (tyrant)- murdered by another tyrant
Drakon wrote down laws
630 BC; criminal law code survived till 4th cent. BC; harsh punishments: death for robbery, murder, breach of contract, etc.; was a lawgiver in 620
Peisistratos
546-527 BC; armed group w/clubs, not weapons; 561 BC- 1st successful coup; didn't change existing laws; Megakles and Lykaurgos against him; had a woman dress as Athena so could reenter city; was eventually forced to leave country in 551 BC; -public works programs, employed supporters, religious festivals; drama began in 530 BC; died 527
Hippias
527-510 BC; Pesistratos's son (brother Hipparchus died, so he came into power); Spartan military w/Athenian help forced Hippias to surrender; -left country, tried to come back, unsuccessful
Kleisthenes
508-507 BC; claimed to represent people; reforms included: divided up population of Attica into voting districts- 150 divisions (demes)- scattered around countryside;
-10 New "Tribes"- named after local Athenian heroes; each assigned a group of demes (15 demes); tribes elected 100 members to serve in Senate (boule) = 500 total members
Solon
594-593 BC; became archon; tried to end civil strife for small farmers; cancelled debts on land (loans on land) cancelled; loans on people made illegal; brought all people back who had been sold for debt; created council of 400 people- 100 from each tribe (boule)- prepared meetings for Assembly; blamed rich and greedy for all problems- divided people into 4 classes according to ownership of property (not aristocratic classification)
Heliaea
court w/large juries
ostracism
"potsharding"; wrote name of someone becoming too popular- would recieve an "honorable exile" for 10 years (needed minimum of 6000 votes); -to prevent rise of tyrants
Spartan government
7th century; 2 kings + 28 elders made up gerousia; there was also an Assembly and 5 ephors (overseers); the 30 gerousia (council of elders)- like a Senate-summoned Assembly every month
Ephors: 7-6th cent.; had power to veto somethings; renewed state of war against helots every year
Spartan education
boys, starting at age of 7, had to live together in groups of 15, got military training; could get married at 20, live w/wife at 30
Roman version of these Greek gods:
Aegina
Zeus
Hera
Demeter
Artemis
Heracles
Egina
Juppiter
Juno
Ceres
Diana
Hercules
Cyrus the Great
550 BC, came to power in Persia; sought to take back land from Meads
546- conquers Croesus of Lydia
Cambyses
son of Cyrus, invaded Egypt in 520; died 521
satrap
ruler of large area in Persia; appointed by King
Miletes
main leader of rebellion in 494-493; sacked by Persians; was the end of Ionian Revolt
Darius
490; attempts made to punish Athenians and Eretrians
class structure of Spartans
Spartiates/Spartans- lived in city of Sparta; full rights
Periocoi- lived around city; not full citizens; Spartans needed them for military needs
Helots- no rights; worst group; mostly Mycenians from 8th cent. -turned into state-owned slaves
Kylon/Cylon
632 BC; unconstitutional leader; 630 BC- wanted to be unelected ruler (tyrant)- murdered by another tyrant (Megacles)
bronze helmet dedicated to Zeus -belonged to this victor
Miltiades
Themistocles
convinced Athenians to use money found from silver mines to build triremes
bridge built between Asia and Europe
Hellespont
Coast of Magnesia
Greeks sank Persian ships
chorus entrance song
parodos
scene between choral songs
episode
choral song between episodes
stasimon
everything after last stasimon
exodus
Aeschylus' Persians
472 BC; earliest play we have; Aeschylus added 2nd actor to plays; play set in Sousa, capital of Persian empire; Persian elders advise Atossa (Xerxes mother) to pray b/c of her dream about war between Persians and Greeks; shows Persian side of it- treats them as "honorary Greeks"
Persian War: Ionian Revolt
499-
Aristagoras from Miletus (wannabe tyrant)- stirred up revolt in Ionian cities; went to get help from other Greeks; Sparta refused,
498: Athens sent 20 ships, Eretria sent 5
-went to Sartis (Persian capital) and accidentally set it on fire; Ionian revolt failed
-Persians want revenge; Darius- gets angry
Sack of Miletus
494 BC; Miletus burned by Persians; Darius' 1st attack on Greece
Darius 2nd response to Ionian Revolt
492 BC; Darius sends Mardonius to lead Persian fleet to attack Athens; huge storm near Mount Athos-takes out part of fleet, they have to return
Darius' 3rd try for revenge
490; Darius sends nephew Datis and Artaphernes to go straight across, taking over islands.
-They conquer Eretria, send Eretrians back to Persia
Battle of Marathon
490 BC; Hippias led Persian army in Marathon; Athenians won under leadership of Militiades; famous b/c first major Greek victory over Persians, even though they were outnumbered; also important b/c the Athenians sent Philipides (very fast runner)to Sparta to ask for help- he ran there and back- delivered his message then died
192 Athenians died-buried together-this became holy #
Battle of Thermopylae
480 BC; not enough greeks to fend off Persian army; all Greeks retreat, except for Spartans who remain- led by King Leonidas; they're betrayed and all die; even though its a Persian victory, seen as moral victory for Spartans-raises their morale
Persians sack Athens
480 BC; -destory Acropolis in Athens
Battle of Salamis
479 BC; Greeks win at sea; Xerxes-watches battle as his ships get destroyed; Athenian victory at sea
Battle of Plataia
479 BC; Persians defeated on land; Greeks win at Plataia; signifies end of war
Oath of Plataia
479 BC; nothing will be rebuilt-none of the religious buildings that the Persians destroyed- to remind them of anger at Persians; 449- Peace of Callias- btwn Persians and Greeks -allows rebuilding
Delian League
formed right after Persian War in 478; loose alliance of mostly islan city-states w/navies-to contribute to league; starts b/c of fear of Persians attacking again; Athens-takes charge of league b/c has largest navy-represents Athenian dominance, and reflection of Athenian imperialism
1) athens moves treasury from Delos to Parthenon
2) Melian Debate- killed men, sold women/slaves into slavery
members wondered why still contributing money when no more Persian threat; Athens prevented any from leaving
Trojan War occurred in
1250
Archilochus, Tyrtaeus existed in
650 BC
earthquake and helot revolt in Lacedaemon (sparta) in which year?
464 BC; Sparta asks Athens for help- Athens sends over people (Athenian debate: Kimon vs. Pericles); Sparta-suspicious sends men back- this encourages anti-Sparta sentiments in Athens
Thasos attempted secession from Delian League put down by force occurred in
463 BC
treasury of Delian league moved from Delos to Athens
454 BC
The Parthenon built in
447-437
Peloponnesian War lasts
431-404 BC; between Athens and Sparta; Spartan earthquake-need help-athens send men-Sparta turn them back;
Athens gets mad-makes alliance w/Argos-seen as anti-Sparta act(debate: Ephialtes vs. Pericles)
Revolt of Mitelene
427
Melian campaign
416-415
Sicilian (Syracuse) Expedition
415-413; Syracuse against Segesta-city in Syracuse; Segesta asks Athens for help (debate: Nicias and Alcibiades)
Athenians send down men w/3 generals: Nicias, Alcibiades, Lamachus
-set up for winter in Catana
-strategy: build fortified siege wall-Athenians have water covered; to cut off all resources; want to build a siege wall all around island (Epipolae)
413: Alcibiades being sent back to Athens-goes to Sparta instead-tells Sparta to attack Athens by setting up permanent fort in Declea (this divides Athenian forces b/c of Spartan threat), and tells Spartans to send fresh troops to Syracuse
Gylippus- man in charge of Spartan troops-strategy-to set up counter walls- Athenians can't continue
-Athens attempted to attack Syracuse forces at night- looked like it'd be successful-lots of confusion-password, Boeotians forced Athenians to retreat; A- ended up losing
Great Harbor
413; key battle- Nicias' indecisiveness- decide to attack, but b/c of eclipse of moon-postpone plans-gives Syracuse time to build forces; Athenians get blocked in by Syracuse-Athenian navy's devastated and destroyed; Asurarus River- 3rd battle-everyone either captured or killed- ends Pelop. War- Spartans-winner
Reign of Philip II of Macedonia
371
"Hellenestic Period"
323-321
Aristophanes' Lysistrata
411 BC;
Sophocles' Philoctetes
409 BC;
death of Sophocles
406 BC;
Lysias active as speech writer
400-380 BC
the age of Pericles in Athens
461-429 BC
treasury of Delian League transferred to Athens
454
Parthenon built
447-433
Athens and Sparta conclude 30 yrs. peace
446-445
Megarian Decree passed in Athens in this year
432
1st phase of pelop war: Archidamian War
431-421
Plague breaks out in Athens
430
Death of Pericles
429
Surrender of Mytilene to Athens/ Surrender of Plataea to Sparta and Thebes
427
Civil war in Corcyra
427
Capture of 120 Spartan soldiers on Sphacteria
425
Peace of Nicias
421-414
Slaughter of Melians
416
Athenian invasion of Sicily
415
Pelop. War-2nd phase (Decelian/Ionian War)
414-404
Destruction of Athenian army and navy outside Syracuse
413
Rule by Four Hundred
411
Destruction of Athenian Navy at Battle of Aegospotami (goat river)
405
Surrender of Athens to Spartans
404