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37 Cards in this Set

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anarexia nervosia
has history of constantly trying to maintain minimal weight
belumia nervosa
chronic vomiting, laxatives, fainting may occur
cause 1: cultural standards
barbie dolls, advertising, family turbulance. werent encouraged to express feelings if something did happen to me, they'd be sorry
Cause 2: family issues
poverty, sexual abuse, fighting with family over food, strict abusive family members, low self esteem, want attention from mom
cause 3: low self-esteeme
i'm worthless. withdrawal, isolate
causes of eating disorders
1. cultural standards
2. family issues-domination, lack of communication
3. low self-esteem
growing up poor, nurse practicioner and african american boy
judgemental, no empathy, imposing her views, no unconditional positive regard, back to client, no eye contact, uncomfortable room, no privacy, doesnt watch language rude. (made him read report card outloud)
growing up poor: visiting nurses
usefull suggestions, no back up for $, empathy, listened to clients concerns.
growing up poor: kitty and Jeff
small child, kittys in a wheelchair, eats junk, poor, las little money but when she gets it she buys junk food
client centered approach
Carl Rogers, 50's. Client is center of our work, non-directive-were not pushing you through counseling
1.clients have the right to select their own goals
2. People have enough insight to choose correctly-people can make good decisions. ingrediants 1. accepting atmosphere 2. supportive role (client and therapist) counselors role: genuine, be confident that you will bring change, accurate-dont make promises that you cant keep, understand patcients lifestyle-values and attitudes, dont treat patcients as objects-not just a case number. counselor should guide patcient through session, dnt amke definative statements, ask questions, like to clarify clients emotions, need to understand peoples fears, advoacte for empathy, client must take responsibility for their actions
Rogers
1. counselor must bring to expression (concious) hostile attitudes
2. Help the client face feelings openly- bring homosexuals out of the closet
3. recognize feelings for what they are (reality check)
4. admit they have these feelings
introduced unconditional positive reguard ****"Feeling tones" -wrote about feelings counsler needs to ge an idea of what the clients are feeling. Empathy, learn how they feel, no just how they say they . ****alter ego- he mirrored what the cleint was doing, cleint see their own bheavior, though the counslor they may change.
personality disorder
on a continuum w/ normal behavior
sometimes hard to diagnose
obsessive-compulsive
needs to alphabetize canned food.cant enjoy life "This is the way I am" Takes an hour in bahroom, needs to clean. dont see their bhavior as a cuase of their problems.
narsastic personality
problems with aging. wants to be perfect, self invovled. needs postivie self regard, dependent up how other precieved here. some allways had to be the star. shaky self esteem based on how she percieved the outside world viewed her
frued
psychosexual stages. oral, anal, phallic, genital. personltiy influenced by earlier tages. Problems caused by an inbalanced between id, ego, superego. psychoanalysis- some people were unanalyzable. tried to get people to bring out their subconcious fears. analyzing dreams.
Kohort
self is whole or damaged. studies narcisitc early relationships shapes later presonality.
anti social personality disorder
many are criminals--can be violent. behavior is against society. frequently abuse drugs and alcohol, this can lead to worse anti social. act as if they are not bound by rules. fighting, anti authority, characterized by lack of moral or ethical development, dont feel the same emotions as other humans, not empathetic.
causes: gang warfare, feelings of inadequitcy/inferiority,tough guy/chip on shoulder, childhood trama-molestation,borken families, seratonin is low, possibley hereditory pre-dispostition
borderline personality disorder
experiences pain and remorse for their actions, anger, unpredicatbility, instability, self destructive behavior--self mutilation, prone to dysphoria- depression, rage, anxiety, distress, spillting defense-its either all good or all bad. childhood trama-incest, not good relationships
group therapy
have oppentunity to test out new behaviors
3 most common psychoactive drugs
alcohol, cocaine, nicatine
physical dependence- cocaine
body has adapted to drug, body withdraws when use is stopped with . cocaine used to be drug of elite, stimulates pleasure centers, prevents the reuptake of dopamine-creating an intense high, damanged lungs if smoked, heart problems, weight loss.
alcohol--
black outs occur. shut friends and family off, strong relationship between crime and violence. anxiety, depression, job loss, peer pressure can cause it. biology,psychology, and environment.
disease model-biology, heredity
psychological-addictive personality, coping esponse, escape, very common among american indians.
nicatein
causes emphazeyma, lung cancer,strokes. more addictive than alcohol
treatment of substance abuse
1. detox
2. maintenance
treatment matching
adler
wanted to be a doctor, face to face, 1 on 1 counseling to help with trust. wanted clients to discover their problem solving skills.
rogers
let clients choose their approach, didnt force them to pick a certain solution to their problem
Rohlamy
discus different stages of development. focus on motives. counseling in the present. you must focus on the here and now
Glasser
relaity therapy- focuses on the present insted of the past. pysical and psychological needs. focus on things you can control not things you cant. ventura school for girls. mental illness results from a persons inability to fill a need.
2 major needs: 1. give and recieve love 2. feel worthwhile
glassers reality therapy procedures
1. involvement- difficult b/c therapist needs a firm relationship and emotional relatinmship w/ the client. know cleint will test our sincerity.
under involvement- reject person thinking about past. reject behavior that is unrealistic, counsler should refuse to acknowlege a persons sympathy. therapists must teach a person better ways to make a choice, therapsist must be responsible, patcient is no longer allowed to evade recognizing their responsibility. suggested we develop a written contract.
bandura
behavior modifycation. punishment/pleasures. increase good behavor, decrease bad behavior.
why group counseling
1. sharing interpersonal relationships by discussing emotional and physical problems with others expressing the same. 7 people
2. can be used to asses the support or lack a client can be expected to recieve in society
3. can gather help from family and friends
4. reduced cost-personnel, time
Life of a group
1. explanation and oreintation.
2. conflict- generally passes
3. integration need to be liked
4. working alliance- communication open trust devleops, make friends outside of group
5. termination- session ends or a member leaves.
more relaity therapy
we are more concerned with behavior than clients opinions.-focus on the here and now.
2 we point out unrealistic behavior-reshape goals
3 we rarely ask why- implies there are reasons or excuses. resons lead to excuses...what are you doing about it now.
4. teach that the therapy is not primarily directed to make him/her happy-equitable solutions.
methodology for reality therapy
1. discussion should focus on the clients present life
2. we alk about his/her abmornal behavior when ever possible.- they might not recognize that its inappropriate
3. we talk about his/her interests (interests, hopes,fears, opinions, values) get to know them
4. we are interested in the client as a person w/ wide potential not a person with problems
5. discussions should be open
-outcomes of discussions-
a. tests the opinon of the therapist
b. gets a feeling of self worth- they get to talk w/ somebody and work out their prolems.
as therapy continues-stress cleints good points and how they can be expanded
last phase
relearning, learns better ways to behave.
office of nationa drug control- principals of treatment
no single treatment is appropriate for all people
treatments need to be readily availiable
effective treatment includes support systems
put in educational programs, find a job
treatment programs need to be flexable/modifyable
keep people in treatment until they are better
individual counseling just as effective as group
medical detoxifycation is only the first stage
does not need to be voluntary to be effective
drug use during treatment should be monitered daily
recovery can be a long term process, treatment should be monitered daily, recovery can be a long term process, suing different treatments.
behavior modifycation
It involves some of the most basic methods to alter human behavior, through operant reward and punishment. Classical conditioning, which aims to affect changes in behavior through associations between stimuli and responses, can also be a component of behavior modification, but it is generally less useful in applied settings because it focuses solely on basic involuntary reactions to stimuli and not on conscious learning associated with a behavior's function or context.
Strictly following behavioral principles, there is no analysis of the individual's thoughts, but many argue that the therapy can be improved with cognitive components
rational emotive.
teaches individuals to examine their own thoughts, beliefs and actions and replace those that are self-defeating with more life-enhancing alternatives. places a good deal of its focus on the present: on currently-held attitudes, painful emotions and maladaptive behaviors that can sabotage a fuller experience of life. REBT also provides people with an individualized set of proven techniques for helping them to solve problems. provides a variety of methods to help people reformulate their dysfunctional beliefs into more sensible, realistic and helpful ones. solution-oriented therapy which focuses on resolving emotional, cognitive and behavioral problems in clients. assumes that humans have both rational and irrational tendencies. Irrational beliefs prevent goal attainment, lead to inner conflict, lead to more conflict with others and poor mental health. Rational beliefs lead to goal attainment and more inner harmony. In other words rational beliefs reduce conflicts with others and improved mental health.