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49 Cards in this Set

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The Characteristics of the Renaissance
Means rebirth. Classical civilizations was the theme. Science, literature, and art were huge. Religion and politics were not touched by the renaissance
The Origins of the Renaissance
Started in Italy. Many scholars gathered in Italy, in cities that were wealthy.
Humanism
Focus on humans rather than the super natural.
The Prince
A book by Machievelli. Its about how to be a prince. A prince has to do whatever he needs to do to stay in power. A prince should rule, and make people fear him.
The waning of the Italian Renaissance
It declined because of the church. Trade lowered. Politics made the Renaissance suffer becuase of disputes and war.
Galileo Galilei
Created the Heliocentric system. The Inquisition sentenced him to house arrest for the remainder of his life for his discovery.
The Northern Renaissance
The Renaissance was less secular in the North. Most prominant buildings in the Northern European towns were Cathedrals.
Neoplatonism in the Rennaissance
Proposed ideas such as the central position of the Sun, and the divinity of geometrical shapes. Helped scientific thinkers to reconsider old ideas which led to great breakthroughs and discoveries. Saw the world as driven by supernatural forces.
The Sciences in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Had mechanistic views of the universe. Growing interest in alchemy and astrology.
The Copernican Revolution
People now believed his theories of the universe. The medieval worldview was overturned and a new path was set for humans.
European Expansion in the late 15th Century
Spain and Portugal ventured over seas. They traveled to South America, Mexico, and Asia. The Protestant reformation was the start of religious divide in all of Europe.
Sea Routes Around Africa in the 16th Century
Portugese ships advanced steadily Southward along the West African coastline.
Christopher Columbus
The Spanish were afraid that Portugal would dominate the trade routes to Asia by the East, so they funded a voyage by Columbus to find a route by the West to Asia. He accidently found the Americas and thought they were Asia.
Spanish Colonization of the New World
Spanish conquistadors sailed to the Americas. They treated the natives brutally.
Indulgences
Gold, silver, livestock farming, and sugarcane
The Medieval View of the Sacraments
The papacy and the church reigned above all
Martin Luther
Translated the New Testamant into German. Created Protestantism
John Calvin
Said God created all things and all humans are sinners by nature
Geneva under John Calvin
Was exiled from Geneva because he was accused of attempting to create a new Papacy. He was invited back after his followers gained power. Here he began his program of reform.
The Origins of the English Reformation
England first had to break away from Rome and the church. The Monarch became head of the English church, and the Church of England was started.
The Protestant Reformation and the Renaissance
Close humanistic textual study of the Bible led to the publication of new biblical editions used by Protestant reformers
Elizabeth I and the Church of England
She pleased Catholics by retaining certain aspects of Catholicism and let Calvinists participate in Parliamant
The Political Efforts of Protestanism
Protestant countries assumed direct control of the church. This resulted in a growth of state power
Max Weber on the Renaissance and Reformation
Reformation created the dominance of Capitalism in Western Civilizations
The Counter-Reformation
Led by strong Popes with vigorous Papal leadership. Swept Europe and made Catholicism dominant over Europe for years to come
The Iron Century in Europe
An age of great turbulence, war, and severe trial
Warfare in Europe From 1550 to 1600
Europe was in a crisis. Protestants and Catholics warred against eachother.
Calvinism in France
Calvinists converted French aristocratic women because they would change their husbands as well who obtained large private armies ready to fight for the Calvinists.
Toleration for Protestants in France
Henry the 4th allowed Protestants to worship in private castles and fortify the South.
The Netherlands and the Habsburgs
The Netherlands had the greatest per capita wealth of all Europe when ruled by the Habsburgs
The Struggle Between Spain and England
The English sea routes were crossing Spanish routes. English ships plundered Spanish vessils. This led to a great naval battle in which the English defeated the Spanish armada.
The Thirty Years War
Protestants revolted against the Habsburgs in Bohemia. German-Catholic forces ruthlessly counter attacked. The war was France and Sweden against Austria and Spain. They fought in Germany, and German cities were destroyed.
The Peace of Westphalia
The peace marked the reemergence of France as the continental power in Europe.
The Spanish Economy
Spent most of their money on wars.Leadership was very militaristic. Was the poorest country in Europe following the 30 years war.
The Defeat of Absolutism in England
People didnt like the rulers. Parliamant told kings what they can and cant do now. There were many religious disagreements
The English Commonwealth
There was no king during this time. No theatre and arts. After the Stuard Restoration, life went back to normal
Witchcraft in early-modern Europe
It was their explanation for all the bad things that happen.
The Rise of the Mughal Dynasty in India
Established by Babur in the 16th century. Most famous emporer was Akbar. Akbar tried to combine religion.
The Divine Faith
Akbar's combination of religion.
The Policies of Akbar
Made people speak his language called Urdu
Nanak
Founded a new religion called Sikh. Combined religions of Hindus and Muslims.
The Taj Mahal
Built by Shah Jahan in the 17th century to honor his wife who died.
The Qing Dynasty of China
Created a political structure represented by military and government.
Ocean Devils
Portugese adventurers pillaged Chinese ships and raided coastal cities.
The Tokugawa Shogunate
A feudal military dictatorship established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the Shoguns of his family. Founded the capital at Edo. The class system went: Samurai-Farmers-Artisans-Traders.
Japanese Isolationism
European countries began spreading Christianity throughout Japan. It was seperating the country so the Shoguns exterminated Christianity and banned all Europeans from Japan.
The Effects of European Enterprise in Africa
Decline of local industries and an increase in conflict.
The African Slave Trade
Slaves were captors from wars. Portugese planned to populate Southern Portugal with Africans. They set up sugar plantations. They also brought Africans to Brazil and the Carribean. 11 million Africans were exported.
The Boers
They were Dutch settlers in South Africa. They were Calvinist Protestants. They were farmers.