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146 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Renaissance
"rebirth", rediscovery of past
humanism
"if you are given a brain use it"
condottieri
mercenary soldiers
Florence
most important city (in Italy) of Renaissance
Lorenzo de Medici
peasant that became duke of Florence, self-proclaimed duke by military force
Venice
small empire/city run by merchants guild
Milan
self-proclaimed ruler of Venice
vernacular
common language (change from only latin)
classics
classic works of literature
Dante (Alighieri)
wrote the Divine Comedy
Francesco Petrarch
poet, wrote sonnets
sonnets (to Laura)
romantic sonnet by Petrarch
Giovanni Boccacio
wrote prose, "Decameron"
Decameron
prose about plagues
Erasmus
wrote in several languages, "In Praise of Folly"
In Praise of Folly
states how perfect the world is, then criticizes
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote history of Florence and "the Prince"
The Prince
guidelines for ruling, amorality (no good or bad, just if it works)
Geoffrey Chaucer
wrote Canterbury Tales
Thomas More
wrote Utopia, a catholic martyr
Utopia
idea of a perfect society
Francois Rabelais
wrote Gragantua, party attitude
Gargantua
comical story reflecting human attitude
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote
William Shakespear
wrote Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet
Palestrina
musician
Giotto
Quattrocento painting, three dimensional, "achieved resurrection of painting from dead", painted believable humans
Sandro Botticelli
painter, shows emotion, combines pagan mythology with Christian faith
Lorenzo Ghiberti
sculpturer/architect, "Gates of Paradise"
High Renaissance
inherited techniques, instruments, polyphony (many voices)
Leonardo de Vinci
expert in engineering, math, architecture (Mona Lisa, Last Supper)
Raphael
perfect design, portrait of Modanna
Michelangelo
sculptor, architect, painter (David, St. Paul's Cathedral, Sistene Chapel)
music
Gregorian Chant
Palestrina
music composer
Johannas Gutenberg
reinvinted printing press
scriveners
writers, against printing
Nicolas Copernicus
concluded sun is center of universe
sacraments
steps to being saved
Eucharist
communion
relics
object for religion
indulgences
removes the penalty of sin
Martin Luther
attained degrees by age 17, decides faith is salvation
Wittenberg
city with university ML taught at
John Tetzel
sold indulgences to rebuild cathedral
Ninety-Five Thesis
created by Luther to reinforce ideas
Diet of Worms
assembly to disapprove Luther
Fredrick of Saxony
bartered for Luther's life
consubstantiation
communion remains bread and wine but are still sacred and have a holy presence
Peace of Augsburg
treaty settled Catholics vs. Lutherin, rulers choose religion
Uldrich Zwingly
disagrees with substantiation
John Calvin
wrote "Institutes of Christian Religion"
predestination
nobody is worthy of salvation
Catherin of Aragon
marries Arthur then Henry VIII
Mary Tudor
daughter of Henry and Catherin
Anne Boleyn
second to marry Henry, beheaded
Cardinal Wolsey
attempts to support Henry VIII
Act of Supremecy
declares Henry VIII head of the church
Elizabeth
daughter of Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
third to marry Henry, has son, dies during labor
Edward VI
son of Jane, becomes king at 11 and dies at 17
Thomas Cranmer
archbishop of canterbury, writes "Book of Common Prayer"
Mary Tudor "Bloody Mary"
queen of england, restores catholicism, persecutes protestants, marries Philip II to unite Spain
Pope Paul III
ended the sale of indulgences
Loyola
former Spanish soldier, had a vision of intellectual army for catholics
Jesuits
loyal to the pope, intellectual catholics
Inquisition
court held to specifically identify heretics
Council of Treat
concluded protestants are heretics
Habsbergs
ruled Spain and Holy Roman Empire, made the land potentially Catholic
Charles V
rules Spain and Holy Roman Empire, 1st Habsberg
Philip II
son of Charles V, fought protestants by force
Netherlands
protestant land, good navy
William of Orange (the silent)
king of Netherlands
Valois
ruling family of France, moderate Catholics
Huguenots
French protestants
Guise
French extreme Catholics, sided with Philip II
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
massacre of protestants in France
Henry Bourbon
leader of protestants, king of France, converts to catholicism for polical purposes
Edict of Nantes
written by Henry Bourbon, granted protestant tollerance
Elizabeth (Virgin Queen)
queen of england, great ruler, never marries
Mary Stuart (queen of scots)
next in line to english throne, marries king of france, king dies, becomes queen of scotland, executed for treason
Spanish Armada
"invincible", large naval fleet, defended by england
Thirty Years War
religious war, international war won by Sweden and France
Bohemia
protestant area
Ferdinand II
catholic, becomes ruler of Bohemia
Gustave Adolphus
swedish king, helped lead protestants
Cardinal Richilieu
ruler of France, aids protestants for political reasons
Peace of Westphalia
end 30 years war
Iberia
spain and portugal
caravel
european ship, strong for sailing
scurvey
disease on ships caused by lack of vitamin C
Marco Polo
travels from italy to china and writes book
prince henry the navigator
portugal explorer, began explorations
Bartholomeo Diaz
passes around africa, names cape of good hope
Vasco da Gama
navigates to idia, becomes rich
Cabral
accidentally discovers Brazil
San Salvador
first island found by columbus
Amerigo Vespucci
con artist/map maker, named America
Vasco de Balboa
first to walk across panama canal
John Cabot
english explorer to america, shipwrecked
Magellan
navigates through south america (cape of magellan), first to sail around the world
Juan d'el Cano
captain of magellan's crew after his death
conquistadors
spanish explorers/conquerers
Hernando Cortes
conquistadore, overthrows aztecs
Francesco Pizarro
conquistadore, overthrows incas
viceroy
minor king in americas
cabildos
council
peninsulares
people sent from europe
creoles
born in america but of european descent
mestizos
mix europeans/indians
encomienda
form of involuntary labor, similar to slavery
slavery
directed towards a race (Benin, Kongo), began by portugese
Dutch
held colonies in the east indies and cape of good hope (begins white settlement in south africa)
Jacques Cartier
sailed river and laid french claims to canada
Samuel de Champlain
established Quebec
English
settled in Newfoundland, established Jamestown in 1607
puritans
radical protestants settled in masachusetts
Timur the Lame
Mongul, "erases" much of the gunpowder region
Steppe Frontier
"gunpowder" region
Mehmet
conquers Constantinople, ends Roman Empire
Istanbul
Constantinople
Suleiman the Magnificent
greatest Ottoman ruler
sultan
Islamic emporer
pashas
secondary rulers to sultans
janissaries
army of slaves, not orginally muslim
harem
women's quarters
Gunpowder Empires
Ottoman, Safavid, Monghul
Osman
founded Ottoman empire
Safi al-Din
founded Safavid empire
shah
Safavid ruler
Ismail
shah, shi'ite leader, gives shi'ites control of Persia
Abbas the Great
greatest Safavid ruler
Babur the Tiger
founds Monghul empire
Akbar
conquerer, believed in total religious tolleration
Shah Jahan
built Taj Mahal, creates conflict with hindus
Taj Majal
memorial for Jahan's wife
Yaun Dynasty
Mongul dynasty
Hong wu
led Ming Dynasty, ex buddist monk
Ming Dynastly
made porcelains famous
Mancha Dynasty
last Chinese dynasty
Choson Dynasty
takes over after Koryo family (korea)
shogun
general, ruler for the emporer in japan
kamakaze
"divine wind", stops Chinese invasion
Father Xavier
missionary sent to Japan
Outlaws foreigners to enter
Toyatomi and Tokugawn
Pure Land Sect
japan is sacred