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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what courts deal with federal laws and Constitution?
federal
Supreme court's jurisdiciton
mainly appelate; original in foreign diplomats or where state is a party
2 ways cases reach supreme court
writ or certiorari

state appeals
steps in civil case
~lawyer is hired
~complaint is filed
~defendant receives summons & files answer
~discovery: both sides prepare for trial
~trial!
what is a tort?
wrongful act which injured parties have right to sue for damages
how are state amendments proposed?
state legislature, popular initiative, xonstituional convention, or constitutional commission
what are the presiding officers of state houses?
upper---lieut. gov
lower---speaker of th ehouse
what is intergovernmental revenue?
money distributed form one level of govt. to another
regressive taxes?
affect people with low income rather than low incomes (help rich)SALES TAX
proportional tax?
each person pays same percentage
local govts are established by? and dependent upon?
constitution---state govt.
what is real/personal property?
real=land/buildings

property=belongings
what are the types of party systems?
1-party
2-party
multi-party
Types of third parties?
single-issue=focus on one idea
idealogical=focus on changing socity
splinter=splits off from major party
election day
first tues after first mon in nov
heads of parties on stat/nat'l level
state=state party chairperson

nat'l=nat'l party chairperson
how are candidates selected?
caucuses, nominating convention, petition, and primary election
what was prob. w/ nominating conventions?
bosses [party leaders] took over
what are committees of nominating conventions
rules, credentials, and platform committees, also committee of permanent organization
what is platform
party's statements of beliefs
what is a caucus
private meetings of party leaders
open/close primary
open=all voters vote

close=only members of political party vote
what are pacs
political actions committees-designed to support political candidates w/ campaign contributions
Federal Elections Commissions?
issues regulations and advisory opinonis that control PAC activity
conservative?
believes govt. should be limited except in supportin gtraditional moral values and promoting freedom of opportunity.
lliberal
govt. should have active role in promoting liberties
what is soft money
money candidates raise for general purposes
15th amendment?
no state can take away right to vote
19th amendment
women can vote
26th amendment
18 year olds can vote
qualifications to vote
18, citizen, resident of state voted in
how is public opinion measured
opinion polls
courts help congress exercise power
legislative
trial jury
petit jury
What are the 2 types of jurisdiction?
appellate---appeals courts
original
what are grand and petit juries?
grand=16-23 people; hears charges in a crim and can issue indictment

petit=6-12 people; weighs evidence in a criminal or civil trial
dtermines # of justices
Congress
four types of supreme court opinions
unanimous, majority, concurring (agree for different reason), dissenting (disagree)
What are the parts of a state's constitution?
bill of rights, preamble, body & amendments......

Purpose: set up/establish state & local government, how money is raised/spent; sets up independent agencies
What are steps in a criminal case?
~police start investigation
~arrest warrant is issued
~taken 2 police station to be "booked"
~initial appearance: charges heard
~prliminary hearing is set; grand jury decides if enough evidence for trial is prevalent
~plea bargaining
~arraignments and leas
~trial is held
~decision made by jury
~sentence is issued
what are the presiding officers of state houses?
upper---lieut. gov
lower---speaker of th ehouse
what makes up exec. branch of state govt/
head=gov
lieutenatn governor
secretary of state
state treasurer
shock probation/incarceration
probation=brief incarceration by supervised release

incarceration=prison program involving shorter sentences in highly structured environment
progressive taxes?
help the poor; vary with a person's ability to pay INCOME TAX
types of local govt
county; municipality; township; special district
what's incorporation why is charter needed?
states grant citizens the right to set up a legal community. Charters determine the type of govt. the community will have.
what is special district
focuses on one function
what are problems with urban growth?
more people in limited area=land/housing becomes more scarce and costly

social problems=homelessness and drugs

future challenges=mass transit, infrastructure & economic development)
where voting takes place
precinct