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193 Cards in this Set

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Are those that follow a specific set of rules for their logical design; including containing a single entry and exit point.
Structured Methods
When a rule is specific it is...
A racetrack-shaped symbol that marks the beginning or end of a method in a flowchart.
Lozenge
A three-sided box attached to a flowchart by dashed line. It is used when you want to provide details for a step, though the details take a lot of room, not easily fitting within a flowchart symbol.
Annotation Symbol
Work with and alter objects. In a flowchart,they appear in a rectangle.
Processing Statements
Read data in from an input device such as a keyboard or file on disk. By convention, those whocreate flowcharts use a parallelogram to display input statements.
Input Statements
Send information to an output device such as a monitor or printer. By convention, those who create flowcharts use a parallelogram to display output statments.
Output Statements
Is snarled, unstructured program logic.
Spaghetti Code
A basic unit of programming logic;each structure is a sequence, se;ection, or loop.
Structure
When you preform an action or event, and then you preform the next action, in order. A sequence can contain anynumber of events, but there is no chance to branch off andskip any of the events
Sequence Structure
When you ask a question, and depending on the answer, you take one of two courses of action. Then no matter which path you follow, you continue with the next event.
Decision Structure
When you are making choices your are also making ....
Another name for a selection structure
If-then-else
Defines one action to be taken when the tested condition is true, and another action to be taken when it is false
Dual-Alternative Ifs
You have two choices
Take action on just one branch of the decsion.
Single-alternative ifs
One branch
The branch of a decision, in which no action is taken
Null Case
No Action Case
When you ask a question; if the answer requires an action, you preform the action and ask the original question again.
Loop Structure
Are alternative names for a loop structure.
Repetition & Iteration
A loop in which a process continues while some condition continues to be true
While Loop/Whilie-Do-Loop
Attaching Structures end-to-end
Stacking Structures
Placing a structure whithin another structure,
Nesting
A group of statements that execute as a single unit.
A Block
The first read or data input statment that occurs before and outside of the loop that preforms the rest of the input statments.
Primary Read/Prmary Input
Think first
You can use _________ when there are several distinct possible values for a single variable you are testing, and each requires a different course of action
Case Structure
When you use different just in ...
You ensure that a procedure executes at least once; then depending on the answer to the controlling question the loop may or may not execute addtional times
Do Until Loop
A procedue that doesn't stop until it run out of choices
Offers two actions, each associated with one of two possible outcomes it is also called an if-then-else structure
Dual-Alternative, Binary Selection
Action is required for only one outcome of the question. You call this form of the selection structurean if-then, because no "else" action is necessary.
Single-Alternative or Unary Selection
Only one outcome
An_______of a decision holds the action that results when a Boolean expression in a decision is true.
If Clause
When a Boolean Expression is true
The_____of a decsion holds the action that executes only when Boolean expression in the decsion is false
Else Clause
If its not false it's something...
A ________in one that represents only one of the two states, usually expressed as true or false.
Boolean Expression
Created by
A_____Boolean expression is one that always evaluates to the same results.
Trivial
A bigger word for "same"
Are the symbols that express Boolean comparisons. (i.e. =,>,<,<=,>=,<>
Relational Comparisons Operators
2+3 is >= 2+4 what am I doing here
When you declare an object,each object name is a _____or memory address.
Refrence
With a ____decision two conditions must be true for an action to take place.
AND Decision
this and that must be true
AN And decision requires a ____ a decision "inside of" another decision.
Nested Decsion or Nested IF
A series of nested statments can also be called a
Cascading If Statements
A symbol that you use to combine decisons so that two or more conditions must be true for an action to occur.
Logiacal AND Operator
Encompasses every value between a high and low limit.
Range of Values
Contains two or more decisions; if at least one condition is met, the resulting action takes place.
OR Decision
more than 1 decision
A symbol that you use to combine decisions when any one conditon can be true for an action to occur.
Logical OR Operator
Either
A symbol that reverses the meaning of a Boolean expression.
Logical NOT Operator
What does a boolean expression do?
When you use a ______you compare a variable to series of values between limits.
Range Check
Comparing variables-to-Values
This value is one that is assigned after all test conditions are found to be false.
Default Value
A logical path that can never be traveled
Dead or Unreachable Path
You have reached the end of a road
When an opertor has______,it is evaluated before others.
Precedence
This Structure provides a conveniant alternative to using a series of decisions when you must make choices based on the value stored in a single variable.
Case Structure
A problem-analysis tool that lists conditions and combinations of outcomes when those conditions are tested, and possible actions based on the outcomes.
Decision Table
When you are listing choices these are your...
Rules of programming languages are.
Syntax
A computers on-off circuitry language.
Machine Language
This translates a high-level into machine language and tells you if you if you have used a programming language incorrectly.
Compiler or Interpreter
This is developed when you give instructions to the computer in a specific squence, without leaving any instructions out or adding extraneous instructions
Logic
Logical erros are also called___by programmers
Semantic Erros
When a computer actually uses the written and compiled program it is____
Run or Executed
What a computer does after instructions
Internal Storage is also called.
Memory, Main Memory, Primary Memory
A permanent storage outside the main memory of the machine, on a device such as a floppy disk, hard disk, or magnetic tape.
External Storage
When internal memory is lost every time the computer loses power it is...
Volatile
This type of programming focuses on the procedures that programmers create to manipulate data.
Procedual Programming
This type of programming focuses on objects or things and describes their features, or attributes and their behaviors
Object-Oriented Programming
The____of an object are the featuresit "has"
Attributes
The values of an object's attributes consitute the objects____
State
The _____of an object are the things it does
Behaviors
Defining the objects needed to accomplish a task and developing the objects so that each object maintains its own data and carries out tasks when another object requests them.
Object-Oriented Approach
Object
Rules of programming languages are.
Syntax
A computers on-off circuitry language.
Machine Language
This translates a high-level into machine language and tells you if you if you have used a programming language incorrectly.
Compiler or Interpreter
This is developed when you give instructions to the computer in a specific sequence, without leaving any instructions out or adding extraneous instructions
Logic
Final result with a sequence
Logical erros are also called___by programmers
Semantic Erros
When a computer actually uses the written and compiled program it is____
Run or Executed
Internal Storage is also called.
Memory, Main Memory, Primary Memory
A permanent storage outside the main memory of the machine, on a device such as a floppy disk, hard disk, or magnetic tape.
External Storage
When internal memory is lost every time the computer loses power it is...
Volatile
This type of programming focuses on the procedures that programmers create to manipulate data.
Procedual Programming
This type of programming focuses on objects or things and describes their features, or attributes and their behaviors
Object-Oriented Programming
The____of an object are the featuresit "has"
Attributes
The values of an object's attributes consitute the objects____
State
The _____of an object are the things it does
Behaviors
Defining the objects needed to accomplish a task and devloping the objects so thateach objects so that each maintain its own data and carries out tasks when another object requests them.
Object-Oriented Approach
Analyzing a system using an object-oriented approach
Object-Oriented Analysis
Desiging a system using an object-oriented approach.
Object-Oriented Design
The act of identifying all the objects you want to manipulate and how they relate to each other.
Data Modeling
Objects are...And relate means
A general category of objects
Class
This means writing the statements in a programming language.
Coding
These type of programs are english like
High-level programming languages
Statements made up of 1's and 0's that the computer understands.
Low-level Machine Language
An error in language or grammer
Syntax Error
These types of errors occur when incorrect instructions are preformed, or when instructions are preformed in the wrong order.
Logical Errors
The entire set of actions an organization must take to switch over to using a new program or set of programs.
Conversion
Another word for switch
A pictorial representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
Flowchart
English-like representaion of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
Pseudocode
English language is False
The arrows in a flowchart that show the sequence of steps carried out
Flowlines
A program that accomplishes some task.
Application
A set of statements that preforms some tasks or group of tasks.
Method
The name of a programming object-a class, method,or variable.
Identifier
A memory device
Mnemonic
These act as mnemonics for hard-to-remember memory addresses
Variable Identifiers
How am I suppose to ____the memory addresses
The format fo naming variables in which multiple-word variable names are run together, and each new word within the variable name begins with an uppercase letter.
Camel Casing
This contains the word class and the class identifier;it is the first line written in a class defintion.
Class Header
The First Line in a method
Method Header
Memory locations whose contents can vary, or differ over time
Variables or fields
Where memory is located
This stores the results of any calculation preformed on its right side to the named location on its left side.
Assignment Statement
Another name for Stores is...
The equal sign is the _____it always requires the name of a memory location on its side.
Assignment Operator
A specific numeric value
Numeric Constant
Another word for specific
A literal set of characters enclosed within qutation marks.
String Constant
Regisrty and literal
A single character enclosed in single quotation marks.
Character Constant
He is ____smoking
This hold numeric values
Numeric Variables
These hold single character values.
Character Variables
These hold a series of characters
String Variables
Registry
A statement that names a variable and tells the computer which type of data to expect.
Variable Declaration
Another word for naming something.
This declares a variable and provides an intial value.
Initializing
Think Intial
These type of values are whole number numeric values.
Integer Values
These type of values are fractional numeric variables that contain a decimal point.
Floating-Point
Automatically supplied values
Default Values
The automatic settings in a computer bios
An unknown value in an uninitalized variable.
Garbage Value
An unprepared paper is ...
These types of variables have not been provided with a value before you attempt to use them.
Undefined Variables
These types of variables have not been provided with a data type or identifier.
Undeclared Variables
A series of steps, or phases
Development Cycle
A__________breaks the development cycle into series of tasks.
Methodology
Verifies that the requirements are complete and translate user requirements into technical requirements, including decriptions of the program's inputs, processing, outputs an interface.
Analyze Requirements
To develop a detailed, logical plan using a tool such as a flowchart or pseudocode. Design the user interface for the application, including, input areas, and other necessary elements.
Design Solution
Step through the solution design with test data. Receive confirmation from the user that the esign solves the problem in a satisfactory manner.
Validate Design
Translate the design into a program using a pogramming language or programming environment; include internal documentation, or comments which are notes within the code that explain the purpose of code statements.
Implment Design
Test the program, finding and correcting errors until it is error free and contains enough safeguards to ensure the desired results.
Test Solution/Debugging
Review and, if necessary, revise internal documentation. Formalize and complete end-user (external) documentation
Document Solution
Lists the functions and features that the program must provide for its end user.
Requirements Document
When a program is loades into the memory and the program is executed, you are doing this..
Running or Executing the program
This has a text-based interface that allows users to enter input using the keyboard and display output as text.
Console Window
This graphically represents the logic used to develop an algorithm.
Flowchart
The method or solution choses to solve a problem
Algorithim
Contains buttons or boxes that execute commonly used commands.
Standard Toolbar
A group of projects and related files.
Solution
Provides an area where you can edit and view code.
Code Window
Another name for code
Module
A section of code that performs a specific task, such as a calculation
Procedure
This anticapates your needs during coding and diplays prompts to assit you.
Intelli Sense
an error caused by code statments that violate ont of the structure or syntax rules of Visual Basic
Syntax Error
225,0.05,78.28,"yes","no" are ....
Values
Represents a names location in a computer memory that can change values as the code executes.
Variable
Represents a names location in computer memory, but its value cannot change during execution of code.
Constant
When you_________ a variable you tell Visual Basic the name and data type of the variable or constant you want to use.
Declare
Determines what kind of data the variable or constant can store.
Data Type
A type of instuction that tells the program to manipulate values, generates outouts, or performs actions.
Method
This method exectutes, the text in qutoes within the parenteses is displayed in the Console window and the insertion point is positioned at the end of the text.
Consol.Write()method
Used to assign the desired value to a variable
Assignment Statement
A statement that performs a calculation, manipulates characters, or tests data.
Expression
Reads all of the data input by the user until the user presses the ENTER key.
Console.ReadLine() method
Any expression that can be evaluated as a number
Numeric Expression
Used to manipulate two or more numeric values.
Arithmetic Operator
A predetermined order that defines the sequence in which operators are evaluated and resolved when several operation occur in an expression.
Order of operator precedence
Used to divide two numbers and then return the remainder of the division operationn as an integer.
Mod operator/Modulo operator
This method addtionally starts a new line after writing information to the Consol window
Console.Write line() method
This joins two pieces of informatin
String concatenation (&) operator
This method waits for the user to press a key before the program exits.
Console.Read()method
Problems that arise during the coding phase
Bugs
When a project is ran the IDE enters a mode called
Run Time
A printed record is also called.
Hard Copy Output
This indicates that a line of code wwas too lng to print on one line and is continued on the next line.
Continuation Marker
Contains documents, examples, articles, and other information about the Visual Basic language and environment.
Visual Basic.NET Help
Displays information for whatener task or window you are working with in the IDE.
Dynamic Help
An extension of the If...Then...Else structure in which more than two alternatives exist
Select Case Structure
Used to implement the If...then...Else structure
If...Then...Else statment
Used to implement the Select Case Structure
Select Case Statement
This condition specifies a relationship between expression that either is true or false.
Relational Expression
This is used to preform a single task when the condition in the statment is true
Single-line If...Then...Else statement
Used to execute more than one statment in a response to a condition
block If...Then...Else statement
Describes where a variable is valid within code.
Block-Level Scoping
Variables that are used to keep a tally of how many times a specific activity occurs in a code.
Counter
A structure in which the action to be taken for the true or false case includdes yest another structure.
Nested If...Then...Else structure
An expression is called a ___________When two or more conditions are combined with these or other logical operators.
Compound Condition
This operator allows you to write a condition in which the true value is complemented or reversed.
Not logical operator
This operator is used to combine two or more relational expressions in a condition.
The And Logical Operator
This operator requires only one of two or more conditions to be true for the compound condition to be true.
Or Logical Operator
This operator requires one of the two conditions to be true for the compound condition to be true.
Xor logical operator
These operators are similar to the "And" and "Or" logical operators but includes a feature called short-circuting.
AndAlso logical operator and the ORElse logical operator
This feature evaluates only one side of either the 'AndAlso' and 'OrElse' logical operators. If the left side of the AndAlso operator evaluates False the right side is not evaluated. if the OrElse operator evaluates True, the right side is not evaluated.
Short-Circuting
The order in which a series of logical operators are evaluated is called.
Rules of Precedence
This allows a, is identified by th programmer to represent many values of the same type with one variable name.
Array
The variable name assigned to represent an array is ...
Array Name
Each variable, or element, stored in the array is identified by the array name and distinguished form one another by an ___or___
Index or Subscript
The main function of this is to declare to Visual basic the necessary information about the allocation of storage locations in memory for array use in a program.
Dim statement for arrays
The value used to start addressing the elements in the array.
Lower-bound value of 0
Defines the highest value in the range of permissable values for the index of an element.
Upper-bound Value
An array with oly on dimension
One-dimensionl array
An array with more than one dimension is called a
Multidimensional Array
This indicates that the line of code continues on the next line and is used to increase the readibility of code.
Line-Continuation Character
These can be used in coding a program, two of which contain the decision to terminate the looping at the top of the control structure and two of which contain the decision to terminate the looping at the bottom of the control structure.
Do...Loop structures
Can be used to implement the four types of control structures
Do Statement
When statements execute until a condition is met or while a condition is true. Statments can execute infinitely which is called_____
Infinite Loop
This statement is used to create a Do While structure.
Do While statement
This statement repeatedly executes the series of statments in the loop as, or while, the condition is true.
Do While structure
This statment is used to createa Do Until structure.
Do Until statment
This structure repeatedly executes a series of instructions until the condition is true.
Do Until structure
This method returns the upper-bound value of a dimension of an array.
GetUpperbound()method
The set of statments beginning with the For statment and continuing up to and including the Next statment that has the same loop variable.
Range
The number of iterations or repetions, specified by a For statment can be computed what formula.
LimitValue-IntialValue/IncrementValue + 1
This statment is used when looping situations require a premature exit from the loop.
Exit Statement