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31 Cards in this Set

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Name 6 Memory Addressing Methods
1. Absolute Addressing - primary memory
2. Direct Addressing - uses actual data location as part of address
3. Implied Addressing - only for internal processing
4. Indexed Addressing - capable of accessing a range of memory addresses.
5. Indirect Addressing - uses a program address scheme.
6. Register Addressing - assigns to the registers with the cpu
Bell-LaPadula Model (BLP)
users can't access data above their classification level.
users can't alter data in lower classification levels.
Users can have read/write access to only user's classification level
Take-Grant Model
Allows users to grant permissions to others.
Biba Integrity Model
read data at their integrity level and higher.
write data at their integrity level and lower
Clark-Wilson Integrity Model
can only perform authorized functions through apps, transactions, etc. Ensures both integrity and proper transaction performance.
Chinese Wall
For working with consultants. A/K/A Brewer Nash Model
Lattice Model
Higher security requiring more controls and lower security requiring less controls. Uses Bell-LaPadula structure of access.
Non-interference
Data manipulated at one classification level cannot affect the data at any other level.
Trusted Computer Base
Any hardware, software, or process that enforces the computer system security policy. Uses and maintains a separate domain.
Reference Monitor
A policy that monitors all access in the computer system. Must be unchangeable, verified, and always running.
Security Perimeter
The security kernal plus any other TCB security measures isolating it from the rest of the system. Anything outside is not withing the TCB.
Layering
Separates data into functional areas. They communicate with each other.
Data hiding
Data layers that are separated and told not to communicate with each other.
Covert Channel TCB Vulnerability
Unauthorized access through a shared communication, often access through storage areas.
Maintenance Hook TCB Vulnerability
A trap door allowing unauthorized access.
Parameter Checking TCB Vulnerability
Fooling the buffer overflow to allow unauthorized access.
Time of Check to Time of Use (TOC/TOU)
Takes advantage of when the security controls are implemented
Name 5 Data Recovery Levels
1. Cold start - The TCB or media fails and is unable to restart within a secure state.
2. Fail soft or resistant - Computer continues to run when noncritical computer processes fail.
3. Fail over - Computer activates an alternate process when one fails.
4. Fail safe - Computer processes stop and system reamins protected.
5. Fault Tolerant - Computer fails but still runs.
Compartmented Security Mode
Allows multiple layers of classification. Handles only users w/ same clearance but requiring access to only segments of data
Dedicated Security Mode
Allows single layer classification. Handles only users w/ same clearance and ability to perform the same processes. Military
Multi-Level Security Mode
Allows multiple layer classification. Multiple level clearance, and multiple access and functionality requirements.
System High Security Mode
Allows single layer classification at the highest level. Handles only the highest level clearance, but requiring access to only segments of data.
What 3 items are used to define the security mode?
1. Sensitivity of data
2. Clearance level of data
3. Functions users perform on the data.
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC)
Part of rainbow series(orange book). It does not handle system integrity.
Name the TCSEC Security Layers
D - Minimal protection, C1 - access is determined by each user, C2 - Security controlled via logon authentication(COTS), B1 - Requires policy for labeling & access control, B2 - Strict authentication and covert channel security, B3 - Resistant to intrusion and capable of trusted recovery., A1 - verified protection
Trusted Network Interpretation(TNI)
U.S. Dept. of Defense's implementation of TCSEC. Red book. Biba model recommended.
IT Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC)
European Counterpart to TCSEC. Requirements for integrity and Availability.
Common Criteria
Combination of TCSEC, ITSEC, and CTCPEC. Uses EALs.
Defense IT Security Certification & Accreditation Process (DITSCAP)
U.S. Government standard. Certified and Accredited.
National Information Assurance Certification & Accreditation Process (NIACAP)
U.S. government standard. Certified and Accredited. Must meet requirements throughout its entire lifecycle.
Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL)
7 levels of assurance w/in the Common Criteria. EAL1(Functionally tested)to EAL7(Formally verified design and tested)