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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
value change
a series of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service
Technology acceptmance model
describes factors that lead to higher levels of acceptance and usage of technology
technology diffusion
measure of how widely technology is spread throughout the organization
technology infusion
extent to which technology is deeply integrated into an area or dept
5 forces model
5 key factors that can lead to attainment of competitive adv.
1. rivalry
2. threat of new entrants
3. threat of subsittute poroducts/services
4. bargaining pwt of buyers
5. bargaining pwr of suppliers
(output/input) x 100%
IS organization responsibilities
operations, systems development, support
set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store, disseminate data and info and provide a feedback mech to meet an objective
single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, process data into into
computer equipment used to perform input, precessing, output activities
set of integrated programs capable of managing a company's vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization
an organized collection of ppl, procedures, software, databases, devices that provides routine info to managers/decision makers
organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, devices used to support problem-specific decision making
value chain
series of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service
model that describes factors that lead to higher levels of acceptance and usage of technology
valuable information
accurate, complete, economical to produce, flexible, reliable, simple to understand, timely, verifiable, accessible, secure
4 basic groups of systems
1. e-commerce/m-commerce
value chain
inbound lgoistics
finished product storage
outbound logistics
marketing and sales
customer service
simultaneous execution of 2 or more instructions at the same time
multicore microprocessor
combines 2 or more independent processors into a single computer so they can share the workload and deliver a big boost in processing capacity
parallel processing
simultaneous execution of same task on multiple processors in order to obtain results faster
grid computing
use of collection of computers often owned by multiple individuals or organizations, to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem
part of computer that consists of three associated elements: ALU, control unit, register areas
part of CPU that performs math calcs and makes logical comparisons
part of CPU that performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons
control unit
part of CPU that sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of ALU, the registers, primary storage, and even 2ndary storage, various output devices
clock speed
series of electronic pulses produced at a predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time
form of memory in which instructions or data can be temp stored
nonvolatile form of memory
sequential access
retrieval method in which data must be accessed in order in which it is stored
direct access
data can be retrieved w/o need to read and discard other data
magnetic tape
2ndary storage medium, mylar film coated w/ iron oxide w/ portions of tape magnetized tgo rep bits
magnetic disk
bits rep by magnetized areas
method of storing data that generates extra bits of data from existing data, allowing the system to create a "reconstruction map" so that if a hard drive fails, system can rebuild lost data
tech that provides high speed connections btw data-storage devices and computers over a network
a group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface btw the database and the user of the database and other application programs
skilled IS professional who directs all activities related to database
typically a name, number, combo of characters that describes an aspect of a business/activity
hierarchy of data
generalized class of people, places, things for which data is collected, stored maintained
characteristic of an entity
data item
specific value of an attribute
field/set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record
primary key
field or set of fields that uniquely ID's record

-employee number
traditional approach to data management
separate data files created/stored for each application program
database approach to data management
pool of related data is shared by multiple application programs
planned data redundancy
way of organizing data in which the logical database design is altered so that certain data entities are combined, summary totals are carried in the data records rather than calculated from elemental data, some data attributes are repeated in more than one data entity to improve database performance
enterprise data modeling
data modeling done at the level of the entire enterprise
entity-relationship diagrams
data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships btw data
relational model
describes data in which all data elements are placed in 2D tables(relations) that are logical equivalent of files
manipulating data to eliminate rows according to certain criteria
manipulating data to eliminate columns in a table
manipulating data to combine 2+ tables
manipulating 2+ tables that share at least one common data attribute to provide useful info and reports
description of entire database
collection of instructions/commands used to define and describe data and relationships in specific database
concurrency control
method of dealing w/ a situation in which 2+ ppl need access the same record in database at the same time
commands that are used to manipulate data in database
data administrator
nontech position responsible for defining and implementing consistent principles for a variety of data issues
data warehouse
database that collects business info from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company's processes, products, customers
data mart
subset of data warehouse
data mining
info-analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in data warehouse
predictive analysis
form of data mining that combines historical data w/ assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events such as future product sales
business intelligence
gather enough of right info in timely manner, usable form, analyze to have positive impact o business strategy
competitive intelligence
limited to info about competitors and ways that knowledge affects strategy
steps org takes to protect info sought by hackers
distributed databse
database in which data can be spread across smaller databases connected via telecommunication devices
replicated database
holds duplicate set of frequently used data
software that allows users to explore data from a number of prospectives
object-oriented database
stores both data and processing instructions
group of programs that manipulate an object-oriented database/provide user interface, connections to other application programs
DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, graphical data
channel bandwidth
rate at which data is exchanged over a comunication channel usually measured in bps
broadband communications
telecommunications system in which a very high rate of data exchange is possible
high-speed internet accessto homes over existing phone lines of local telephone network
computer network
communications media, devices, software needed to connect two or more computer systems and/or devices
network that supports interconnection of information technology within a range of 33 ft or so
network that connects computer systems and devices within a small area like an office, home, several floors of building

ex: google earth
connects users and devices in geographical area that spans city/campus
network that ties together large geographic regions
mesh networking
a way to route communications btw network notes by allowing for continuous connections and reconfiguration around blocked paths by "hopping" from node to node until a connection can be established
centralized processing
processing occurs at a single location or facility
distributed processing
computers placed ta remote locations but are connected to each other via network

-can allocated data to locations that process it most efficiently
decentralized processing
good for compnaies that have independent operating divisions: Valero Energy Corp
`uses physical device address in each incoming message on the network to determine to which output port it should forward the message to reach another device on the same network
connects LAN to another LAN that uses same communications protocol
forwards data packets across two or more distinct networks toward their destinations
servces as entrace to another network
systems software that controls computer systems on a network and allows them to communicate w/ each other

ex: NetWare
enables manager on a netwokrked desktop to monitor the use of individual computers/shared hardware, scan for viruses, ensure compliance w/ software licenses
project of DoD in 1969 as an experiment in reliable networking and means to link DoD and military research contractors
communication standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed
widely used Transport-layer protocol that most Internet apps use w/ IP
Internet's high-speed long-distance communications links
communications protocol that transmits packets over telephone lines

like a PPP
markup language for Web documents containing structured information, including words, pictures, other elements

-no predefined tag sheet
small program embedded in Web pages
meta-search engine
submits keywords to several search engines/returns results from all search engies queried

push technology
automatic transmission of information over the internet rather than making users search for it w/ their browers

-buddy lists/instant messaging?
searches Web for info, products, prices

process by which VPNs transfer info by encapuslating traffic in IP packets over the Internet.
trusted 3rd party org that issues digital certificate
communications protocol used to secure sensitive data during e-commerce
enterprise system
central to org thta ensures info can be shared across all business functions and levels of management to support the running/managing of business
for of data processing where each transaction is processed immediately w/o delay of accumulating transactions into a batch
transaction processing cycle
data collection, editing, correction , manipulation, storage, document production
accounting systems
budget, accounts receivable, payroll, asset management, general ledger
problem solving
intellignece, design, choice, implementation, monitoring
programmed decision
decision made using a rule, procedure, quantitative method
commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution

rules of thumb
the quantity that should be reordered to minimize total inventory costs
critical inventory quantity level
set of inventory-control techniques that help coordinate thousands of inventory intems when the demand of one item is dependent on the demand for another

goal: determine when finished products are needed
system that directly controls manufacturing equip
computers link components of productino process into effective system
allows manufacturing facilities to rapidly change from making one product to another
ad hoc DSS
DSS concerned with situations or decisions that come up only a few times during the life of the organization
institutional DSS
DSS that handles situations or decisions that occur more than once
delphi approach
decision-making appraoch in which group decision makers are geographically disperced
nominal group technique
encourages feedback from individual group members, final decision by voting
systems analyst
professional who specializes in analyzing/designing business systems
responsible for modifying/developing programs to satisfy user requirements
traditional, prototyping, rapid application development, end-use development
traditional SDLC
investigation, analysis, design, implementation, maintenance, review
iterative approach, requirements/alternative solns to the problem are identified/analyzed, new solns designed, portion of system implemented
user review used
employs tools, techniques, methods deigned to speed application development
process for data collection and requirements analysis in whihc users, stakeholders, IS professionals work together to analyze existing systems, propose possible solns, define requirements of a new/mod system
end-user systems development
any system development project in which business managers and users assume the primary effort
tools that automate many of the tasks required in a systems development effort and encourage adherence to SDLC
combines logic of systems development life cycle with power of object-oriented modeling/programming

identify potential problems/opportunities w/in organization that would be appropriate for OO approach

define what kind of system users require

design system

program/modify modules

eval by users

periodic review/modification
feasibility analysis
asses technical, economic, legal, operational, schedule feasibility
-part of systems investigation
technical feasibility
hardware, software, other system components can be acquired or developed to solve the problem.
-part of systems investigation