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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a system unit and what are the common components?
-case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

-adapter cards, processor, memory, ports, drive bays, power supply
what is the motherboard? chip?
-main circuit board in system unit

-small piece of semi- conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched
what is a CPU and what are the 2 components that it is made up of?
-central processing unit... interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate computer

-Control unit: directs and coordinates operations in computer
~Arithmatic Logic Unit(ALU): performs arithmatic, comparisons and logical operations
what is pipelining?
CPU begins fetching second instruction before completing first...multi- tasking
what is a register?
temporary high speed storage area that holds data and instructions
what is the system clock?
controls timing of all computer operations
what are heat sinks, heat pipes, and liquid cooling?
heat sinks: component with fins that cools processor

heat pipes:smaller device for notebook computers

liquid cooling:uses continous flow of fluid to transfer heat away
what is parallel processing?
using multiple processors simultaneously to to execute a program faster
how do computers represent data?
most computers are digital
what is a byte?
-8 bits grouped together as a unit
-provides enough different combonations of 0s &1s to represent 256 individual characters
what is memory and how is it measured?
-electronic components that store instructions, data, and results

-by number of bytes available for storage(K,MB,GB,TB)
what is RAM?
Random Access Memory
-memory chips that can be read from and written to by processor

-volatile (is lost when computer is turned off)
what are the 2 types of RAM?
-SRAM(static ram):faster and more reliable than DRAM. doesn't have to be re-energized as often as dram

-DRAM(dynamic ram):most common type. must be re-enrgized constantly
where does memory reside?
-on small circuit board called memory module
what is cache memory? what are the 4 types?
-helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data

-L1 cache:built into processor

L2 cache:slower, but has larger capacity

L2 advanced transfer cache:faster and built directly on processor chip

L3 cache:seperate from processor chip. is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache
what is ROM?
memory that stores permanent data and instructions and is non-volatile (not lost when computer's turned off)
what is flash memory?
-non volatile memory that can be erased electronically and re-written (PDAs,digital cameras, smart phones)
what is CMOS?
Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor memory
-uses battery power to retain information when other power is turned off

-stores date, time,start-up instructions
(used in some RAM & flash memory chips, etc)
what are the 4 types of memory?
ROM, RAM, Flash memory, CMOS
what is access time?
-amount of time it takes processor to read data from memory
(measured in nano-seconds and is faster than a blink)
what is an adapter card? expansion slot?
-enhances system unit or provides connections to external devices called peripherals

-an opening or socket on motherboard that can hold an adapter card
what are PC cards and Flash memory cards?
-adds memory, storage, sounds to notebook computers

-allows users to transfer data from mobile to devices to desktop computers(USB)
what are ports and connectors?
ports:connects external devices to system unit

connector:joins cable to peripherals(available in 2 genders...male and female)
what are different types of connectors/ports?
-serial,USB, network,printer, keyboard
what is a serial port and a parallel port?
-transmit one bit of data at a time. connects slow speed devices (keyboard, mouse)

-connects devices that can transfer more than one bit at a time (printer)
what are USB ports? fire wire ports?
-can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a sigle connector type

-connects multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission(can connect up to 63 devices together)
what are special purpose ports?
-allows users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data to wireless devices
what is a BUS and BAY?
-channel that allows devices inside computer to communicate with each other

-open area inside system unit used to install additional equipment (drive bays typically hold disks)
what is storage? storage medium?
-holds data, intructions, and results for future use
-physical material used for storage
what is capacity?
-number of bytes storage can hold
when it comes to storage, how does volatility compare?
-storage medium is non-volatile(contents are retained when powers off), while memory is volatile
what are the 2 funtions of storage device?
-reading: process of transferring items from storage media to memory

-writing:process of transferring items from memory to storage media
what is access time?
-time it takes storage device to locate item on storage medium
-time required to deliver item from memory to processor
what is a zip disk? miniture hard disk? (how much so they store)
-magnetic medium that stores 100MB to 750MB.

-provide sers w/ greater capacities than flash memory...2GB-100GB
this considered a high capacity storage and is installed in system unit?
-hard disk
what is the difference between external hard disks and removable hard disks?
-freestanding hard disk that connects to system unit

-hard disk u insert and remove from hard disk drive
this can be read only or read/write only?
optical discs
what is a CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-ROM?
-compact disc read only memory...650MB- 1GB

-compact disc recordable...disc u can write on once

-compact disc rewritable...erasable disc u can write on multiple times

-digital versatile disc rom ...4.7GB-17GB
how is data stored on a tape?
-sequential access
what is a PC card? smart card?
-adds capabilities to computer

-stores data on microprocessor embedded in small card
what are common types of flash memory cards?
-compact flash, smart media, secure digital, xD picture card, memory stick
what is a USB flash drive?
-plugs in a USB port on a computer or mobile decice...stores up to 4GB
this stores microscopic images and has the longest life expectancy than any other storage media?
microfilm and microfiche
what is input? input device?
-data or instructions entered into memory of computer

-any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions
what are the 2 types of input?
data:unprocessed text,numbers, images, audio, and video

commands , and user responses
when it comes to input, how is a keyboard divided?
typing area, numeric keypad, funtion keys/special keys that issue commands
this pointing device that fits under palm of hand is called what?
what is an optical mouse? trackball?
-no moving mechanical parts inside
-stationary device w/ ball on its top or side
when it comes to input, what is a touch pad and a pointing stick?
-small, flat, pointing device, sensitive to pressure and motion

-pointing device shaped like an eraser positioned between keys on keyboard
what is a light pen? touch screen?
-input device that can detect light

-touch areas of screen with finger
what is a stylus and a digital pen?
looks like a ball point pen, but uses pressure to write text and draw lines
what is a portable keyboard and a docking station?
-a portable full size keyboard u can attach or remove from PDA

-an external device that holds a mobile computer
what is a smart phone?tablet PC?
-many hve built in cameras, text messaging, soun clips, etc

-mobile computer that includes handwriting recognition software
what is resolution?
-sharpness and clarity of image
-the higher the resolution, the better the image quality, but the more expensive the camera
what is video input?
process of entering full motion images into computer
what is a PC video camera and Web Cam?
-DV camera used to video and still images, and to make video telephone calls on internet

-video camera whose output displays on a web page
what is an optical reader?what are the 2 types?
-device that uses light source to read characters, marks and codes and then converts tohem to digital data
-OCR(optical character recognition):reads in OCR font
~OMR(optical mark recognition)- reads handdrawn pencil marks
what is an RFID?MICR?
-reads info on a tag by radio waves

-magnetic- ink chracter recognition reader...reads text with magnetized ink (banks use this)
what is a POS terminal?biometrics?
-records purchases, processes credit or debit cards
-authenticates person's identity by verifying personal charactersitics (fingerprint scanner)
what is output and output device?
-data that has been processed into useful form

-hardware that component that can convey info. to user
what is an LCD monitor?
-uses liquid crystal display
ex)notebooks, PDAs, tablet PCs)
how do u use a LCD monitor with a video card?
-plug monitor into Digital Video Interface (DVI) port on computer
what is a plasma monitor?
-displays image by applying voltage to layer of gas (has larger screen and higher display quality than LCD, but are more expensive)
what is a CRT monitor?
-contains Cathode Ray Tube
-screen coated with tiny dots of phosphor material
what determines the quality of a CRT monitor?
-screen resolution
-refresh rate
how does video transfer from processor to CRT monitor?
-video card (converts digital output from computer into analog video signal)
what are the 4 most expensive monitors?
-13" TV screen
what are the 2 orientations whenit comes to a printer and printing?
landscape and portrait
what is the resolution of a printer?
-sharpness and clarity
-measured by number of dots per inch printer can output
what is voice output?
computer talks to u thru speakers on computer
what is a multi functional peripheral?
provides functionality of printer, scanner, and copy machine and fax
what other output components are available to those w/ disability
-braille printer outputs info. in braille
-blind users can use voice output