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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what was the ENIAC and who created it?
-first electronic computer, which was much faster
-Eckert and Mochley
what was the UNIVAC and who created it?
-first business computer, first non- militant computer,predicted election in 1952, first to be able to store programs
-created by eckert and mochley
the case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data and keeps everything together is called what?
system unit
what are components within the system unit?
processor, memory, adapter cards(sound and video), ports, drive bays, power supply
what is a motherboard?
-main circuit in system unit where everything goes thru.-also known as the system board
what is a chip?
small piece of semi- conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched
what is a CPU?
Central Processing Unit
-interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer
what are some names of processors and biggest companies?
-Celeron, Pentium, Athlon,Centino

what are the 2 parts within the CPU and what do they do?
1. Control Unit- directs and coordinates operations in computer

2.Arithmatic Logic Unit (ALU)- performs arithmatic, comparison, and logical operations
what is the machine cycle that the CPU goes thru?
1. Fetch
2. Translates (decodes)
3. Execute
4. Store
what is pipelining?
as it works on one thing it goes on to another task (multi- tasking)
what is a sytem clock and at what speed does it operate?
-an internal monitering system that controls timing of all computer operations
-speeds are in gigabytes
what is paralell prcocessing?
using multiple processors simultaneously
how do computers represent data?
1.most are digital
2.recognize only 2 discret staus: on/off
3.use binary system to recognize 2 states
4. use number system w/ 2 unique digits 0&1 called bits and bytes
what is a bit and byte?
bit- short for binary digits

byte- series of 8 bits and provides enough combonations to have 256 different combos
what is memory?
-electronic component that stores instructions,data, and results
-consists of one or more chips on motherboard
how is memory measured from smallest to the most bytes?
kilbyte(thousand), Megabyte(million), gigabyte(billion), terabyte(trillion)
what is RAM?
-considered the main memory
-volatile (goes away when computer turns off)
what are the 2 basic types of RAM chips?
-Static RAM(SRAM): faster, more expensive, and reliable (doesn't have to be re-energized as much as DRAM)

-Dynamic RAM(DRAM):you get more of this(must re- energized often)
what is ROM?
read only memory
-memory chips that store permanent data and instructions
-non-volatile(it is not lost when computers power is turned off)
what are the 5 types of memories?
-flash memory
What is flash memory?
-used for things like digital cameras
-nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten
-used for smaller devies
what is cache memory?
-helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used intructions and data
this is said to be part on static...?
cache memory
what is CMOS?
-Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor memory
-battery back up for computer (date, time, computer start up info)
what is access time?
measured in nano seconds (1billionth of a second..faster than blinking of eye)

-amount of time it takes processes to read data from memory
what is an adapter card?
small circuit board in motherboard

-enhances system unit/ provides connections to external devices called peripherals
what is an expansion slot?
-opening or socket for extra adapter cards/ devices
-plug and play (printers)
what is a flash memory card?
allows data to transfer data from mobile devices to desktop (USB flash drive)
what are ports and connectors?
-connects external devices to system unit
-joins cable to peripheral (comes in two genders..male/female)
what are the 2 types of ports?
*serial: first and slowest port we've had
-connects slow speed devices such as mouse and keyboard **only one bit at a time..0 or 1

*parallel: connects devices that can transfer more than one bit at a time, such as printer
what what is a USB?
Universal Serial Bus
can connect up to 127 different peripherals together w/ a single connector type
what are fire wire ports?
-connects multiple types of devices that require faster transmission device
-faster than USB, connects 63 devices
what is a Bus and Bay?
-transportation channek that allows devices inside computer to communicate w/ each other

-can add new internal features/ used to install additional equipment
what is an example of a Bay and what does it do?
drive bay: typically hold disk drives
what type of memory would you add to your computer if you wanted it to be faster?
what is the difference between HTTP and HTTPS?...what does it stand for?
*Hyper Text Transfer Protocol-standard way to transfer text/ data

*HTTPS- adds security (when giving personal info.)
this is said to give you extra security when it comes to storage?
it stands for secure, socknet, layers (SSL)
what is storage?
holds instructions, data, and information for later use
what is storage capacity measured in?
in bytes:
what is a storage medium?
-is physical material used for storage
where are the six places you can back up files?
Hard drive, USB drive, CD/DVD, My backpack, upload to website, email attachment
what is a floppy disk and how much memory can it hold?
portable and in expensive
-can hold 1.44MB
how mauch can a zip disk store?
100MB to 750 MB of data
what is a hard disk and how many bytes can it store?
-High capacity storage
-components enclosed in air tight, sealed for protection
(internal to computer)
*40-160 gigabytes
what is a miniture hard disk?
provide users w/ greater capacities than flash memory
what are optical dics?
what is a CD-ROM and how much can it store?
compact disc read-only memory
-can't erase or modify contents
-650MB to 1GB
what is the difference between a CD-R and a CD-RW?
-compact disc recordable
~disc u can write on once

-compact disc re-writable
~erasable disc you can write on multiple times
what is a DVD-ROM?
digital versatile disc-ROM/ video disc -ROM
-high capacity disc capable of storing 4.7GB to 17GB
-stores databases, music, complex software
this is said to have the longest life expectancy?
micofilm- microfiche
what is a tape and how does it store data?
-magnetically coated plastic ribbon capable of storing large amounts of data @ low cost

-used for backup...stores data by sequential access(go thru whole tape, can't go directly to certain section like access)
what does the U in USB Flash drive stand for...what is its storage capacity?
-U stands for Universal
stores up to 4GB
what is a smart card and where does it store its data?
-credit cards that can provide functions

-stores data on microprocessor embedded in small card
what type of byte is RAM measured in much can it store?
measured in MB
stores up to 256-1024MB (1GB)
when it comes to processors, the higher the gigahertz the what?
the faster
harddrive is measured in what type of much canit store?
GB 60-250
in recitation, what were the most common processers?
Athlon and Sempron
what are some things that you should look for when buying a computer?
-desktop/ laptop
-software programs
-weight/battery life/ size
what is another name for system unit?
this contains adapter cards, memory chips, and processor chips...?
what is a register?
temporary high speed storage area that holds instructions and data
what are heat sinks, heat pipes, and liquid cooling?
*heat sinks- components w/ fins that cools processor

*heat pipe-smaller device for notebook computers

*liquid cooling-uses a continous flow of fluids to transfer heat away
each byte in memory is stored in a unique location called what?
what does RAM stand for?
Random Access Memory
where does memory reside?
on small circuit board called memory module
what are the 4 types of cache memories?
-L1: cache built into processor

-L2:cache slower but has larger capacity

-L2 advanced transfer cache: is faster, built directly on processor chip

-L3:is seperat from processor chip on motherboard(is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache)
what are some example of connectors?
USB drive, telephone line in, printer, mouse, headphone
this allows users to attach specialized peripherals or transmit data to wireless devices...?
special -purpose ports
how does volatility compare between memory and storage medium?
~memory- is volatile, holds data & instructions temporarily

~storage medium- is non-volatile, contents retained when power is off
what is considered primary storage and secondary storage?
~primary- memory (RAM)
~secondary- hard disk, USB, floppy, tape, cds/dvd
what are the two options when it comes to optical discs?
-read only
-read/write only
what are the 4 types of optical devices?
what are common types of flash cards?
compact flash, smart media, secure digital, xD picture card, Memory stick