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85 Cards in this Set

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Integration
Allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems
Enterprise system
Provide enterprisewide support and data access for a firm’s operations and business processes
Enterprise application integration (EAI)
Connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems
Middleware
Several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications
Enterprise application integration middleware
Takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors
Three Primary Enterprise Systems
Supply Chain Management, Customer Relationship Managment , Enterprise Resource Planning.
Supply Chaing Management: Five Basic Supply Chain Activities
Plan, Source, Make, Deliever, Return.
Plan
Prepare to mange all resources required to meet demand.
Source
Build relationships with suppliers to procure raw material
Make
Manufacture products and create prduction schedules
Deliever
Plan for transportation of goods to customers
Return
support customers and product return.
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
The management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
supply chain has three main links
Materials flow from suppliers and their “upstream” suppliers at all levels, Transformation of materials into semifinished and finished products through the organization’s own production process, Distribution of products to customers and their “downstream” customers at all levels
Supply chain visibility
The ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time
Supply chain planning system
Uses advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain while reducing inventory
Supply chain execution system
Automates the different activities of the supply chain
Bullwhip effect
Occurs when distorted product demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain
Demand planning system
Generates demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques, so companies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demands through supply chain enhancements
Common supply chain metrics include
Back order, Inventory cycle time, Customer order cycle time, Inventory turnover
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Involves managing all aspects of a customer’s relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability
RFM
Recency Frequency and Monetary Value
CRM reporting technology
Help organizations identify their customers across other applications
CRM analysis technologies
Help organization segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers
CRM predicting technologies
Help organizations make predictions regarding customer behavior such as which customers are at risk of leaving
Operational CRM
Supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers
Analytical CRM
Supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers
CRM
Customer Relationship Management
Marketing and operational CRM technology
List generator, campaign management, cross-selling and up-selling
Sales and operational CRM technology
Sales management, contact management, opportunity management
Customer service and operational CRM technology
Contact center, Web-based self-service, call scripting
Three marketing operational CRM technologies
List generator, Campaign management system,Cross-selling and up-selling
Website personalization
Occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person’s likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person
Enterprise resource planning
– Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system (or integrated set of IT systems) so that employees can make enterprisewide decisions by viewing enterprisewide information on all business operations
Core ERP component
Traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations
Extended ERP component
Extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations
Three most common core ERP components
Accounting and finance, Production and materials management, Human resource
Accounting and finance ERP component
Manages accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management
Production and materials management ERP component
Handles the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control
Human resource ERP component
Tracks employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities
Balanced scorecard
Enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
The overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
Planning phase
Establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goals
Analysis phase
Involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
Design phase
Establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
Development phase
Involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
Testing phase
Involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
Implementation phase
Involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it
Alpha Testing
Assess if the entire system meets the design requirements of the users
Development Testing
Test the system to ensure if its bug-free
Integration Testing
Verify that separate systems can work together passing data back and forth correctly
System Testing
Verify that the units or pieces of code function correctly when integrated
User Acceptance Testing (UAT)
Determine if the system satisfies the user and business requirements
Unit Testing
Test individual units or pieces of code for a system.
Plunge Implementation
Discards the legacy system and immediately migrates all users to the new system.
Pilot Implementation
Assigns a small group of people to use the system until it is verified that it works correctly, then the remaining users migrate to the new system.
Phased Implementation
Installs the new system in phases until it is verified that it works correctly.
Maintenance Phase
Involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet its business goals
Waterfall methodology
A sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
Iterative development
Consists of a series of tiny projects
Agile methodology
Aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements
Rapid application development methodology
Emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
Prototype
A smaller-scale representation or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an information system
Extreme programming (XP) methodology
Breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete
Rational Unified Process (RUP)
Provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates
SCRUM
Uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
Economic Feasibility
Measures the cost-effectiveness of a project.
Operational Feasibility
Measures how well a solution meets the identified system requirements to solve the problems and take advantage of opportunities.
Schedule Feasibility
Measures the project time frame to ensure it can be completed on time.
Technical Feasibility
Measures the practicality of a technical solution and the availability of technical resources and expertise.
Political Feasibility
Measures how well the solution will be accepted in a given organization.
Legal Feasibility
Measures how well a solution can be implemented within legal and contractual obligations.
Project
Temporary activities undertaken to create a unique product or service
Project management
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
Project manager
An individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget
Project deliverable
Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project
Project milestone
Represents key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed
Project management office (PMO)
An internal department that oversees all organizational projects
Project stakeholder
Individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion
Executive sponsor
The person or group who provides the financial resources for the project
Project charter
A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities and includes
SMART
criteria are useful reminders on how to ensure that the project has created understandable and measurable objectives
Project plan
A formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution
In-sourcing (in-house-development)
Uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems
Outsourcing
An arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house