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### 39 Cards in this Set

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 the study of algorithms computer science list the different properties of an algorithm the formal and mathmatical properties; their hardware realizations; their linguistic realizations; their applications a well obtained, ordered, unambiguous and effectively computable operations, that when executed, produces a result and halts in a finite amount of time. algorithm name the three different categories of an algorithm sequential operations; conditional operations; iterative operations this operation are sequential instuctions that carry out a single well-defined task. sequential operation this operation ask a question and the next operation is selected on the basis of that answer conditional operation this operatin are "looping" instructions of an algortihm that tells the computer to not go on to the next step but to repeat previous steps. iterative operations the machine, robot, person, or thing carrying out the steps of an algorithm is called a computing agent an operation that can be understood and carried out directly by the computing agent without furthur simplication or explanation is an operation that is unambiguous when an operation is unambiguous we call it a primitive operation a computational process that allows the computing agent to complete the operation successfully is effectively computable an algorithm that essentially run forever is called a(n) infinite loop True or False: There is always more than one way to write a correct solution true John Napier invented the _________ to simplify difficult mathmatical computations logarithms what year was the slide rule invented 1622 Blase Pascal designed and built one of the first __________ mechanical calculators called the Pascaline Gottfried Leibnitz constructed a mechanical calculator called the Leibnitz's Wheel The Jacquard Loom used ________ to program the machine punched cards This machine could do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to 6 sig figs Difference Engine (1823) The Analytic Engine is similar to the design of the modern computer (true or false) true FORTRAN and COBOL are the first high-level programming language the language we speak and write is called natural language statements that have a well-defined structure used to program something pseudocode psedocodes must include instuctions to carry out the three basic sequential operations called computation, input, and output a named storage location that can hold a data value variable _____ operations submit to the computing agent data values from the outside world that it may then use in later instructions input _____operations send results from the computing agent to the outside world output a type of loop in the beginneing of each pass in which the loop body can possibly never be executed is called a pretest loop a type of loop in the end of each pass in which the loop body can possibly never be executed is called a posttest loop finding a solution to a given problem is called an algorithm study a simple and straight-foward technique used for searching an unordered list of values is called an sequential search the use of high-level instructions during the design process is an abstraction modifying a program to correct errors or to expand its functionality is doing program maintence Name 4 desirable characteristic of an algoritm elegance; ease of understanding; effiency; correctness the study of the effiency of algorithms is called the analysis of algorithms arranging a list of values in an alphabetical or numerical order is called sorting a type of sorting algorithm that "grows" a sorted subsection of the list from back to front selction sort algortihm an algorithm that does cn^2 work for any constant c is order of magnitude n^2 name three data-cleanup algorithms copy-over; shuffle-left; coverging pointers