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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the parts of the circulatory system?
What is the function of the heart?
Heart-pumps blood throughout the body
What are the parts of the heart?
Left and right atrium
Left and right ventricle
Name the valves of the heart and where they are located
Tricuspid valve-between right atrium and right ventricle

Pulmonary valve-exits the right ventricle

Mitral valve-between left atrium and left ventricle

Aortic valve-exits the left ventricle
What is the function of the valves of the heart?
The valves prevent blood from backing up into the heart.

Mitral and Tricuspid keep blood from backing up into the atria and the pulmonary and aortic keep blood from backing up into the ventricles.
The heart pumps and is a __________?
The heart is a powerful muscle that contracts and relaxes causing the blood to pump through it
How does the blood get from the lungs to the heart?
The blood travels from the lungs to the heart by the pulmonary vein
How does the blood get back to the lungs from the heart?
The blood travels from the heart to the lungs through the pulumonary arteries
What does the blood (carrying oxygen) flow through as it goes from the heart to the rest of the body?
Blood leaves the heart and travels through the body via the aorta (the body's largest artery).
What does the blood (without oxygen) flow through
as it returns to the heart?
The superior and inferior vena cava (largest vein in body)
The blood picks up what in the lungs?
The blood gets rid of what waste in the lungs?
Carbon dioxide
What are the components of blood?
White Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells with Hemoglobin
What is the function of blood?
Transport oxygen and nutrients to every body cell and to take carbon dioxide and other waste from every body cell.
What is plasma?
Plasma is the fluid which other parts of blood are suspended in.
What is the composition of plasma?
This fluid is 92% water with important nutrients
blood cells
What are the functions of red blood cells?
Carry oxygen from the lungs to body cells
Contains hemoglobin
What is hemoglobin and its function?
Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells
the oxygen carrying part of blood
gives blood the red color
What are the functions of white blood cells?
White blood cells are larger than red blood cells, but are fewer in number.
1) protect the body against infection
2) fight infection when it occurs
How do white blood cells fight infections?
There are two ways WBC fight infection
1) They surround pathogens and ingest (eat

2) They produce antibodies that make you
immune to the disease after the first
What are platelets and their function?
Platelets are the smallest type of blood cell
They prevent loss of blood
They cause the blood to clot by producing
chemicals that form small fibers called fibrin.
How many miles of blood vessels are in your body?
60,000 miles
Name the three major types of blood vessels?
What is the function and description of arteries?
Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
Flexible tubes
smooth inner lining
thick muscular wall in middle
high blood pressure in arteries
What is the function and description of veins?
Veins return deoxygenated blood toward the heart from the body.
smooth inner lining
muscular middle layer
walls of veins are thinner and less flexible than
inner lining forms valves to keep blood from
backing up into the capillaries.
lower blood pressure in veins
What are capillaries and their function?
Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body.
Carry blood between the arerioles and venules.
Very thin.
Capillaries are not always open for blood to flow
What controls the opening and closing of capillaries
The body's need for oxygen and nutrients
What can the capillaries in the skin affect?
The body's temperature (depending if the capillaries are open or closed)
What are the functions of the lymphatic system?
Functions of the lymphatic system are:
1) it drains tissue fluid back into the blood
from the body

2) it fights infection in the body
What are the parts of the lymphatic system?
Lymph vessels
Lymph nodes
Lymph ducts
Describe lymph and its function
clear yellow fluid
fills spaces around body cells
made of proteins, fats,
What is a lymphocyte?
A special white blood cell that protects the body against pathogens
What is a pathogen?
A pathogen is a disease carrying agent
What are the two main types of lymphocytes?
T cells

B cells
How do B-cells work when they meet a pathogen?
B cells
enlarge and multiply
turn into PLASMA cells
produce antibodies that destroy or neutralize
How do T cells work with an infection and what are the different types?
T cells are
Killer cells-multiply
attach to invader cells
release toxin to destroy them

Helper cells-help B and T cells
control other aspects of immune
What are and what is the purpose of lymph nodes?
Lymph nodes are masses of tissue that filter lymph fluid before it returns to the blood.
How many and what is the purpose of lymph ducts?
2 lymph ducts -one in neck and one in chest area

Empty lymph fluid into veins to fight infection
Why is smoking bad for your circulatory system?
It increases blood pressure and heart rate by
narrowing the arteries.
What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the force of blood in the main arteries
What is systolic pressure
When ventricles contract, blood is forced into arteries causing the artery walls to bulge out.
What is diastolic pressure
When the ventricles relax and fill with blood, arterial pressure is the lowest.
How is blood pressure determined?
Use a cuff tightened around arm to stop blood flow.
Release air to let blood begin to flow in artery again
Listen to blood entering arteries (systolic pressure)
Loosen cuff and listen to blood flows evenly through arteries (diastolic pressure)
How to you read blood pressure and what are the
normal ranges?
Top- systolic pressure 110-140
Bottom- diastolic pressure 70-90
What is congenital heart disease?
A heart defect occurring at birth
What are some types of congenital heart disease?
Valves not functioning properly
Hole between chambers of heart
blockage of blood flow through heart
What is a heart murmur?
An abnormal sound of the heart beat caused by:
1) A valve that is too narrow causing blood to be
pushed through a restricted opening with more
force than normal

2Z) A valve that doesn't close properly letting
blood leak back through it.
What are varicose veins?
Swollen and enlarged veins (usually in legs) caused when valves in veins are weakened and cannot prevent a backflow of blood. This allows blood to collect in veins.
What is anemia?
Anemia is when the amount of hemoglobin in the blood is less than normal. It limits the amount of oxygen that body cells get.

Usually caused by a deficiency of iron in the diet.
What is leukemia?
Leukemia is a type of cancer caused by abnormal production of white blood cells in the bone marrow.

Abnormal cells spill into blood
Enter other organs
Interfere with organ function
Prevent bone marrow from making blood cells and platelets and can be deadly.
What is hemophilia?
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a defective blood protein (factor VIII) which is necessary for blood clotting.

Blood clots very slowly or not at all.

People could bleed to death internally
What is immune deficiency?
Can be congenital (from birth) or acquired defect
HIV destroys T cells which fight pathogens and causes immune deficiency
What is Hodgkins disease?
Cancer of the lymph tissue which is found in the lymph nodes and spleen.

Cancer cells spread quickly through the lymph system.
What is tonsillitis?
Tonsillitis is an infection caused by organisms.

Tonsils become inflamed and tender.

Treated with antibiotic