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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lyphatic system
collects excess body fluids and returns them to the cardiovascular system
hepatic portal system
transport in the brain
hypophyseal portal system
transport in the brain
period during which the ventricles contract
period of cardiac muscle relatxation during which blood drains into all four chambers
cardiac output
heart rate x stroke volume
Sinovial (SA) node
- pacemaker
- spreads impulses through both atria, stimulating them to contract simultaneously
Atrioventricular (AV) valve
- conducts slowly to allow enough time for atiral contraction and for the ventricles to fill with blood
bundle of His (AV) bundle
carries impulses from AV node and branches into Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers
carries impulses from bundle of His to walls of both ventricles, generating a strong contraction
parasympathetic nervous system
innervates the heart via the vagus nerve and causes a decrease in the heart rate
sympathetic system
innervates the heart via the cervial and upper thoracic ganglia and causes an increase in the heart rate
adrenal medulla
- exerts hormonal control via epinephrine (adrenaline) secretion
- causes increase in heart rate
Blood pressure
- sytolic/diastolic
- drops from artery to capillary dur to friction between blood and walls of vessels and increase in cross-sectional area given by numerous capillary beds
- formed from stem cells in bone marrow
- no nuclei, mitochondria
- anaerobic and obtain their ATP via glycolysis
- arise from stem cells in marrow of long bones
- granular, lymphocytes, and monocytes
granular lymphocytes
- neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
- role in inflammation, allergic reaction, pus formation, and destruction of invading bacteria
- produced in lymph nodes, tonsil, spleen, appendix, thymus, and bone marrow
- involved in production of antibodies
- phagocytize foreign matter
- mature to macrophages
- cell fragments
- lack nuclei
- function in clot formation
Rh factor
- woman can be sensitized by an Rh+ fetus if fetal red blood cells enter maternal circulation
- woman will produce antibodies to Rh factor
- becomes a problem if she has another child because Rh antibodies will attach an RH+ fetus
Bohr Effect
increasing concentrations in H+ and CO2 in blood decrease hemoglobin's O2 affinity in the tissues thus increasing release of O2 in the tissues
carbonic anhydrase

CO2 + H2O <--> H+ + HCO3-
lymph capillaries
fats enter lymphatic system through lymph capillaries in small intestine and drain into bloodstream bypassing the liver
hydrostatic pressure
- greater at the arteriole end of capillaries than the surrounding tissue fluids
- causes fluid to move OUT of capillaries at arteriole end and INTO the tissues
osmotic pressure
- solute concentration
- higher in the blood than in the tissue fluid
- causes fluid to move back into capillaries at venule end
artierole end hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
- arteriole end of capillary bed is greater than opposing osmotic pressure
- pressure difference favors hydrostatic pressue so there is a net flow of fluid out of capillaries
venule end hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
- osmotic pressure across the wall is greater than the hydrostatic pressure
- pressure difference draws fluid into the capillaries
humoral immunity
- production of antibodies
- B cells response
cell-mediated immunity
- involves cells that combat fungal and viral infection
- T cell response
active immunity
- production of antibodies furing an immune response
- conferred by vaccination
passive immunity
- involves transfer of antibodies produced by another individual
- very short-lived
cytotoxic T cells
- destroy antigens directly
helper T cells
- activate other B and T cells, and macrophages
suppressor T cells
- regulate other B and T cells to decrease their activity against antigens
lymph capillaries
- collect fats by absorbing chylomicrons in small intestine and transporting them to cardiovascular circulation
lymph flow
regulated by contraction of neighboring skeletal muscles and rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels themselves
excess intersitial fluid transported by lymphatic system to cardiovascular system
lymph nodes
- swellings along lumph vessels
- contain phagocytic cells that filter lumph to remove and destroy foreign particles
Sequence for cardia impulse
SA node --> AV node --> bundle of His --> Purkinje fivers --> ventricles
Hemoglobin's affinity of O2
decreases as blood pH decreases
The tricuspid valve prevents backflow of blood from the...
right ventricle into the right atrium
How does the pH of arterial blood affect the rate of ventilation?
decrease in pH = increase in ventilation