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5 Cards in this Set

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What is pulse pressure?
It is the difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. The 2 major factors that affect pulse pressure are stroke volume output and compliance of arterial tree.
What happens in patients with moderate aortic regurgitation?
This is usually due to incomplete closure of the aortic valve, blood pumped into the aorta flows back into the left ventricle. This increases stroke volume and systolic pressure. It also causes a decrease in diastolic pressure. these patients have high systolic pressure as well as high pulse pressure.
What is the difference between angiotensin 1 and 11?
Angio. 11 is a powerful vasoconstrictor.
Angio 1 is formed by an enzyme(renin) acting on a substrate called angiotensinogen.
Angio. 1 is converted to angio 11 by a converting enzyme. It is also a strong sodium retaining hormone that increases arterial pressure. Administration of an ACE inhibitor would be expected to decrease angio. 11 formation, total peripheral resistance and arterial pressure.
List some natural vasodilators for the coronary artery system.
Bradykinin/prostaglandins/CO2/ and K+ ions.
The major controller here is adenosine. It is formed as ATP degrades to AMP. Small portions of the AMP molecule are further degraded to release adenosine into the tissue fluids of heart muscle, and this vasodilates the coronary arteries.
Why are sympathomimetic drugs used?
To counteract hypotension, including spinal cord injury, where sympathetic output may be interrupted.
Also given during deep anaesthesia, as well as anaphylactic shock that results from histamine release.
Drugs such as norepinephrine augment blood pressure by causing vasoconstriction.