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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Welders flash is a result of exposure to what?
UV-B & UV-C
What is the most hazardous form of non-ionizing radiation?
UV-B
Active transport systems are very important for ____ of foreign compounds from the body.
elimination
If a compound is equitoxic by all routes, it is probably not ___.
Biotransformed in the liver
The ___ involves the average of isotopes found in nature.
Atomic Weight
What is an allotrope?
Different form of the same element, i.e. carbon & diamond
If we are 95% confident the average lies within this limit, what equation will be used?
X +/- 1.96 (SD/(n)1/2)
If we are 95% confident the average is this number or lower, what equation are you going to use?
X + 1.645 (SD/(n)1/2)
Write the equation for determining the "mass collected" when given time & concentration.
Sampling rate x Conc. x Time = Mass Collected
What is the breathing rate for a person at rest?
12 liters/min
What is a definition for Precision?
Getting the same results during a measurement. Key is reproducing the "same" measurement each time.
What is the minimum number of air changes for an abrasive blast cabinet?
20 air changes/min.
What are the cut points for the following: Respirable; Thoracic; & Inhalable?
4 um - Respirable
10 um - Thoracic
100 um - Inhalable
What chemical becomes CO in the body?
Methylene Chloride
What is the unit for brightness?
Foot Lambert
1 Lumen/sq.ft. = 1 Foot Lambert
Farmers lung is an allergic reaction to what?
Fungal spores
In taking the CIH exam, what is at least one thing that should be double-checked?
The Units. Recalculated if necessary. Also need to read the question carefully; Read all possible answers. (more answers possible)
What are the atomic weights of the following? N, S, O2
N=14
S=32
O2=16
What happens to the melting point when impurities are added?
Impurities will lower & broaden the melting point of the material.
When designing the height of a non-adjustible desktop, what range should be used?
Design for the average (50th percentile)
Ionization chambers have gas amplification factors that are?
Equal to 1. This instrument can detect the difference b/w alpha, beta & gamma.
What is the best first step in setting up a new IH program?
To establish strategic goals & objectives for the IH program & tactical goals & milestones for the program implementation.
Particles of this size range deposit predominantly in the upper airways. What is this range?
4-20 um
Gram positive stained bacteria are ___ in color.
Gram negative are ___?
Positive - Blue
Negative - Red
Itai-Itai disease is associated with what metal?
Cadmium
This is a term that refers to the amount of energy given to the medium per path length.
Linear Energy Transfer (LET). High LET particles - Neutrons & Alphas; Low LET - Gamma
What is the definition of specific gravity?
Ratio of the density of a substance to that of the reference material, typically water.
A velocity of ___ is below the effective range of a pitot tube with inclined manometer.
500 fpm
What is the SAR in J/Kg of tissue?
144 J/Kg
What is the ELF TLV in Tesla?
TLV = 1 mT (1000 uT) at 60 Hz
If an upward plenum slot hood design is to be used to exhaust an open surface tank, what is the max. tank width?
36"
Tanks wider than this require a slot along both edges or double-slot hood down the middle.
What is the typical voltage range for a single-stage electrostatic precipitator?
40K-70K Volts
Some of the most well know promoters for cancers?
Phorbol esters.
Promoters increase the carcinogenic response. Can also act as a co-carcinogen.
This instrument measures alpha, beta & gamma radiation.
Ionization Chamber
Sound intensity is inversly proportional to the...?
square of the distance.
What are the units for specific gravity?
gr/ml
Cr 6+ has been linked to ___ cancers & what else?
Lung cancer.
Also linked to kidney & liver damage, eye injuries & skin ulcerations.
What is the definition of a mist?
Finely divided liquid droplets suspended in a gas.
Write out the formula for Molality?
Molality = # of moles of solute/1000 gr of solvent
Hopcalite is primarily?
Manganese Dioxide
The DOT classifies radioactive materials as hazardous when their specific activity exceeds?
0.002 uCi/gr
What are the 3 shape classes for aerosols?
Isometric
Platelet
Fiber
What is the particle size for mists?
40-400 um
What is the rule of thumb of beta penetration into the skin?
The penetration of beta into the skin (in cm's) is 1/2 the value of the energy, when the energy is stated in MeV.
Beers law, what does it state?
Absorption is dependent on the concentration & the molar absorptivity.
TDI is a ?
Pulmonary sensitizing agent
Cadmium is a ?
Pulmonary irritant & Nephrotoxin
Protozoa & fungi have a membrane-bound nucleus, so they are called___?
Eukaryotic Cells
Bacteria are ___ cells that do not have a nucleus or membrane bound structures.
Prokaryotic.
Bacteria do have a cell wall that provides shape & prevents rupture.
Pollen in this size range causes allergic reactions in humans.
15-30 um
What is the difference between statistic & parameter?
Statistic - describes a characteristic of a SAMPLE.
Parameter - describes a characteristic of a POPULATION.
A T-test is used for what type of distribution?
Normal Distribution.
Air sampling data is log-normally distributed.
These types of studies select subjects based on disease status.
Case-control or Case Referent
What is the Central Limit Theorem?
The distribution of all sample means from samples of size n taken from a population approaches normality as sample size increases. "The sum of a large # of random variables distributed normally."
The diffusion coefficient is ___ ___ to the particle diameter.
Inversely Proportional
Discuss a theory "Y" Leader.
A theory Y Leader assumes their employees are intelligent, hard working & willing to learn. They would encourage subordinates to self-manage, take responsibility and share in decision making. This is democratic leadership.
One of Demings key principles is that everyone has a ____.
Customer.
You need to understand you customer to really know what your job is. Deming = Statisical QC
Risk control techniques include ___ & ___ of risk.

Risk Financing involves a choice between ___ & ___.
Risk control
Avoidance & Reduction of Risk

Risk Financing
Retention & Transfer
Maslows heirarchy of needs, what are the?
1.
2.
3.
1. Existence
2. Relatedness
3. Growth

This was further developed into a more modern version of needs theory called ERG theory.
Shock mounts & other vibration isolation techniques are useful in the low frequency range of ____ Hz.
500 Hz
What are the gaseous products of fission?
90-Kr
133-Xe
131-I
90-Strontium is a ___ emitter.
Beta

Has a 30 year 1/2 life with a +2 charge. Absorbs into the bone.
The type of equilbrium where the parent radionuclide has a much longer 1/2 life than the daughter.
Secular Equilibrium
What is Transient Equilibrium?
The equilibrium the half-life of the daughter is of the same order of magnitude but shorter than that of the parent.
Rule of thumb for beta in air: The absorber half-thickness is approx. ___ of the range of the beta in air.
1/8
What is the angle for the line of sight?
Between 20-60 degrees below ear-eye line plane or 40 degrees below the horizon.
What is the movement away from the central axis of the body - AWAY from the median plane.
ABduction
What is the movement TOWARD the central axis or midline.
ADduction
MVC or ___ ___ ___ is sometimes called maximum torque.
Maximum Voluntary Contraction.
Its a term to describe the max. force output of a muscle or group of muscles.
The min. static coefficient of friction (COF) of ____ or higher is considered the min. for Pedistrian Safety.
0.50
Desks should be at what height range?
600-700 mm
HPLC can be used for what types of compounds?
Non-volatile.
Name that Pesticide:
1. Carbaryl is a(n) ___?
2. Malthion is a(n) ___?
3. DDT is a(n) ___?
4. Endrin is a(n) ___?
Carbaryl - Cholinesterase inhibitor
Malathion - Organophosphate
DDT & Endrin are Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticides
HPLC is used for analysis of what compounds?
PCB's; herbicides; insecticides; phthalates; isocyanates
What is the minimum transport velocity required to keep most dusts from settling out in the duct.
3500-4500 fpm
The argon laser has wavelengths in the ___ region.
Visible.
Argon lasers are GREEN.
458-515 nm and is used in surgery for photocoagulation
What is the retinal hazard region for lasers?
400-1400 nm
The most serious laser injuries happen at what wavelenght or region?
Wavelength - 700-1400 nm
Region: IR-A
Discuss Cohort Study what is it, and what types of studies are these suited for?
1. Subjects are classified based on exposure status & free of disease.
2. These studies are well suited for: a) assessing effects of rare exposures; b) examining multiple outcomes of a single exposure; c) establishing a temporal relationship between exposure & disease outcome; d) minimizes the potential of selection bias.
A radiation area is an area where the dose may exceed ___ mrem in any hour or ___ mrem in any consecutive ___ days.
5 mRem
100 mRem
5 days
What is the normal range of transport velocities for gases & vapors?
1500-2500 fpm
What is the equation for molarity?
Molarity = # moles of solute/# liters of solution
What is the equation for Normality?
# of gram equiv. solute/# liters of solvent
What is the equation for Molality?
Molality = # moles of solute/1000 grams of solvent
Arsenic exposures have been linked to what type of cancers?
Liver, bladder, kidney, lung, lymphatic & skin cancers

Also...
Perepheral Neuropathy
Dermatitis
Nasal Septum Ulcers
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Name some Hepatotoxic agents:
Carbon tetrachloride
Chloroform
Nitrosamines
Tetrachloroethane
Aflatoxins
What is the upper limit of laminar flow?
Re = 2100
Reynolds Number
Flame ionization detectors are best for ____ chemicals.
Organic
Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed ___ times the TLV-TWA for no more than a total of ___ minutes during a workday, and under no circumstances should they exceed ___ times the TLV-TWA.
3 times
30 minutes
may not exceed 5 times the TLV-TWA.
What is the metabolite of toluene & xylene?
Toluene - Hippuric Acid
Xylene - Methyl Hippicuric Acid
What is the NIOSH Rule of Thumb for sampling?
>/= 6 samples for a valid estimate; >11 samples required to estimate variance
What is the density of air at STP?
0.075 lbs/ft3
HPLC is used for analysis of what?
PCB's
Herbicides
Insecticides
Phthalates
Isocyanates
Contaminant must be soluble in the mobile phase.
To be designated as a HEPA filter, the filter must be at least ____% efficient.
99.97%
Only 3 particles of 0.3 um size can pass for every 10K particles feed in the filter.
An odds ratio <1 generally indicates that the exposure is?
Protective
An odds ratio >1 generally indicates that exposure is?
Harmful
Considered the most hazardous wavelength for exposure to the eyes.
270-280 nm
UV-C
Welders Flash is in this region, also called photokeratoconjuntivitis
Plasma welding generates what type of radiation?
UV
Mass spec is used for analysis/detection of what?
Complex mixtures:
VOC'x
PAH's
Herbicides & Insecticides
What is the definition of Relative Risk?
The Ratio of Disease Incidence in an Exposed Group compared to the disease incidence in a UN-exposed Group.
Write out the Rule of Thumb for Noise & combining dB's.
0-1 +3
2-4 +2
5-9 +1
10 or higher + zero
Name some Nephrotoxic agents.
Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Uranium
Lead
Mercury
Turpentine
What instrument may be used to measure Oxygen concentrations?
Thermal Conductivity Detector

Used for Low MW gases such as CO, CO2, N2 & O2
CO2 lasers have a wavelength in the ___ region.
IR
The Nd:YAG laser has a wavelength in the ___ region.
Ocular focus, but visible
How many field blanks should be taken?
1 for every 5 samples
What are the atomic masses of the following:
He
C
N
O
F
S
Cl
Br
He=4
C=12
N=14
O=16
F=19
S=32
Cl=35.5
Br=80
What is the formula for Raoult's Law?
Pa = Xa Pa^o

Pa = Pressure of Component A
Xa = Mole Fraction of A
Pa^o = Vapor pressure of the Pure Component A
____ metal gives a Garlic Taste in the mouth.
Tellurium

But unlike Selenium causes the body sweating mechanism to partially shut down
What is the target organ for Arsine gas?
Heme (red blood cells)
Name 3 metals that cause damage to the peripheral nervous system.
Arsenic
Mercury
Thallium
These 3 chemicals are Nephrotoxic (kidney).
Mercury
Chromium
(Both cause damage to the proximal tubules)
Uranium
(Causes massive necrosis of the proximal tubules.)
The chemical is associated wtih urinary bladder cancer.
Benzidine
Can cause cancer with an exposure in less than a year.
What are the effects of Pentaborane?
Can cause CNS effects at very low concentrations.
Can also cause liver kidney damage.
Acute exposure to this chemical causes acute chemical pneumonitis due to its irritant effect on the lung tissue.
Beryllium
The most common agent regarding metal fume fever is?
Zinc Oxide
Welding on galvanized steel
How are mercury exposures monitored?
Since mercury exposure effects kidney function, monitor Urinary Hg levels.

Alkyl mercury may be found in the blood.
What is the total volume of air in the lung following max. inspiration called?
Total Lung Capasity
___ occurs subsequent to a carcinogen exposure & by definition these act during the neoplastic development phase of carcinogenesis.
Promotion
___ is a type of hepatic lesion charcterized by a decrease or stoppage of bile flow with resulting retention of bile salts & bilirubin.
Cholestasis
____ modify the effectiveness of carcinogens given at the same time & thus by definition would exert their effect during the state of neoplastic conversion.
Cocarcinogens
Name some inorganic carcinogens.
Nickle
Chromium
Beryllium
Uranium
Polonium
Radium
Radon Gas
___ compounds are most readily excreted because they are more water soluble & excretory fluids (urine & bile are mainly aqueous).
Hydrophilic
___ is a potent lung & respiratory tract irritant.
Vanadium
A compound that enters the GI tract first enters the ___ circulation.
Portal
to liver to systemic circulation
Compounds absorbed in the lungs first enter the ___ circulation.
Systemic
Subchronic exposures are how long in duration?
Subchronic 1-3 months
The presence of chemical DNA adducts is indicative of a ___ ___ not a tumor.
Genetic lesion
What is the best detector for halogenated compounds & pesticides?
Electron Capture
What detector is best for Phosphorus & Sulfer containing compounds?
Flame Photometric
Name some neurotoxins
Mercury
Thallium
Organometallic Compounds
Organophosphorus Insecticides
CS2