Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The continuing engagement of the minds of all the learners with that which is to be learned. The student involvement can be covert and/or overt. It is a Principle of Learning that affects the Rate and Degree of learfning.
Active Participation
The process of (1) the "breaking" of complex material into components and indicating the relationships between the parts; (2) the comparing an/or contrasting of entities and ideas. One of the levels of cognition according to Bloom's Taxonomy.
A mental process - the mind searces its previously acquired knowledge for information useful in "making sense" of the "upsoming" learning. The intent is to (1) generate immediate focus on the lreaning, and (2) cause positive transfer.
Anticipatory Set
With little or no teacher guidance, the learner selects and usues an appropriate generalizaation, process, or skill to solve a problem encoutered in a new situation. One of the levels of cognition according to Bloom's Taxonomy.
An observable activity to be performed by the student as a emonstration of the possession of an acquired learning. It is an essential component of an instructional objective.
A process of unconstraied articulation of thoughts. Brainstorming is a substep in the Task Analysis process which, when combined with impeaching, should result in the listing of the essential enroute objectives.
The teachers' indepth examination of the final objective of the Task Analysis in order to make sure that each component of that objective is clearly understandable. The objective is analyzed for the presence of absence of the essential components.
Clarify the Terminal Objective
An opportunity for the mind of the learner to reflect on that which has transpired for the purpose of achieving insight an/or clarification. A chance to mull over the learning in order to assimilate it. A principle of learning that affects teh Rate and Degree of learning.
The learner demonstrates undertanding of the learning through the process of translation, interpretation or extrapolation. The second of the intellectual levels of cognition according to Bloom's Taxonomy.
The learner is expected to make a jedgement about the value of ideas, works, solutions, methods, material, etc. The judgement may be qualitative or quantitative, and the criteria may be determined byt he student or be given to him/her. The highest level of cognition according to Bloom's Taxonomy.
The absence of a perceived reinforcer. A behavior is "extinguished" by withholding reinforcement.
An external circumstance or condition that impels the learner to focus one's effort on a task or activity.
Extrinsic Motivation
One of the extrinsic variables of Motivation. A learner's perception of the setting as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral influences his/her attentiveness to a task or activity.
Feeling Tone
To concentrate on something. It is the desired effect of the use of Anticipatory Set and the extrinsic variables of motivation. It is characteried as an intent to attend and to persevere on the part of the student.
The performance of a learing behavior more than once under the direct and close supervision of the teacher. The intent is to enable the teacher to provide corrective feedback before the performance is grooved.
Guided Practice
Refers to the specialization of the right and left hemishpere of the brain. The left side processes information that is sequential or verbal. The right side processes spatial or visual information.
The process of challenging for essentialness of enroute objectives. A substep of the Task Analysis process performed in conjunction with "Brainstorming."
One of the extrinsic variables of Motivation. The teacher's presentation of the learning in ways that are novel and/or vivid can increase the learner's focus on the learning.
Review sessions scheduled periodically through the year. The intent is to maintain proficiency with prior learnings.
Intermittent Practice
The delivery of the positive reinforcer periodically, rather than constantly upon the performance of a behavior. From the perspecitve of the individual performing the behavior, the reinforcer may seem to occur in an unpredictable or random way. The effect of this stratey is to make the behavior persistent and resistant to forgetting.
Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement
The satisfaction of "reward" stems directly from the performance of a task or activity. A student who likes to solve math problems for no exterior motive can be said to be intrinsically motivated by math problems.
Intrinsic Motivation
It is the rote memory level of thinking. The student is asked to demonstrate the capacity to store and then retrieve information upon demand. A characteristic of this level performance is that there will be little or no change in the information. The student is in effect, asked to "parrot" back the learnings. The first level of Bloom's Taxonomy.
One of the extrinsic variables of Motivation. The teacher arranges for the delivery of feedback as the student is engaged in the performance of the learning task. The two characteristics of this variable are that it is specific and immediate.
Knowledge of Results
One of the essential components of a formal instructional objective. It is the part of the objective which names the level of cognition and the specific piece of academic content.
One of the extrinsic variables of Motivation. A sense of expectancy, anxiety, or tension attached to the performance of a task. The teacher's intent is to cause the student to experience a "moderate" (productive) sense of concern about the quality of his/her effort. When concern is too high or too low, the level of attending to the learning task is diminished.
Level of Concern
A principle of learning that affects Retention. Given a NEW learning, the student will perform enough repetitions to achieve his/her maximum proficiency level. An approach that is useful in counteracting "overload" is the SHORT BUT OFTEN strategy.
Massed Practice
A principle of learning that affects Retention. The teacher attemtps to build in understanding to help sudents remember the lreaning. Three useful strategies are (1) relate the learning to a prior similar experience; (2) establish a purpose for the learning; (3) translate the learning into other forms.
Techniques or "gimmicks" that assist remembering. An example: HOMES is used to remember the names of the Great Lakes.
Mnemonic Devices
A Principle of learning that affects Retention. The teacher presents a vixual representation of the learning. It can take the form of a demonstration of a process or an example of a product. In the initial stages of learning, useful guidelines are (1)a correct demonstration or exampls is presented; (2) the criteria that make the model correct are made known to the observers.
An essential element of effective instruction. The proces that articulates the observation of student performnce and the modification of the teacher's actions.
Monitor and Adjust
A circumstance, either intrinsic or extrinsic, that engenders and "intent to attend." A student whose behavior toward a learning can be characterized as focused, attentive, and persevering, can be said to be this.
A description of the interaction between a behavor and a negative reinforcer; (1) it strengthens the response that takes away the Negative Reinforcer; (2)suppresses the behavior that brought on the Negative Reinforcer.
Negative Reinforcement
Can be any "thing" percieved by the recipient as not wanted or desired. It weakens the response (the student behavior) that becomes linked with the unwanted consequence.
Negative Reinforcer
A description of a learner who has completed a successful learning experience. It is an articulation of (1) the learning, the level of cognition, the specific content, and (2) the student behavior. It may also include a statement of the condition and the performance level.
Student behaviors that are observable, takes toe form of activities that can be monitored. It is an aspect of Active Participation. The teacher attempts to provoke thos form of student involvement with the learning by use of such techniques as response boards, signals, choral responses, rehearse responses, etc.
Overt Behavior
The phenomenon that taks place when a behavior that has been effective in generating the delivery of a postive reinforcer begins to be follwed by extinction. The behavior increases in intensity or frequency of performance beftre it withers and dies.
One of the components of an Objective. A statement of the mastery level, or degree of proficiency, established by the teacher.
Performance Level
A description of the interaction between a behavior and the Positive Reinforcer.
Positive Reinforcement
Can be any "thing" perceived by the recipient as wanted or desired. Will maintain and/or strengthen the response (student behavior) it follows. In effect, it will make that response more likely to reoccur.
Positive Reinforcer
A principle of learning that affects Retention. It is the repetition of a behavior for the purpose of achieving proficiency. Useful guidelines: (1) Mass for a new learning; (2) Schedule intermittently for a prior learning.
Generally accepted beliefs, truism, generalizations, which address how people learn. They have been arrived at through intuition, experience, and research. The use constitutes one of the essential elements of effective instruction. They affect the student's focus on learning, rathe and degree of learning, transfer of learning, and retention of learning.
Principles of Learning