Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
starts in jerusalem samaria gaul spain
covenant theology

1783 anglicans who remained in US become the protestant episopal church. 1784 american methodism organized apart from british methodism and anglicansim

menno simons
azusa street 1901 bethel bible college
east west split 1054
luther 1517// 15 21 diet of worms
issue: unity of God the father, God the son

1.defined son
2.condemned Arius
3.wrote nicene creed
issue: how can Christ be God and man at same time

A. affirmation of hypostatic union
1.two natures
2.peferct and complete
3.without conversion or confusion
4.without division or separation

Condemned Euthychianism
1540s (1534

starts with life of loyola 1534

papal reform
catholic spirituality
culminates with Trent 1545-1564
---justification def
---scripture tradition on par
Heidelberg Catechism

impetus: Elector Frederich III appoints Olevanius and Ursinus to explain doctrine for regular people

purposely contrasted to RCC

bridge between lutheran and reformed

misery of man
redemption of man
gratidue due of man
Belgic Confession

Guido de Bres

1 of 3 standard confessions of dutch reformed church

written in French

confession contained thirty-seven articles

considered one of the best statements of Calvinistic doctrine outside of the Westminster Confession
Synod of Dordt

synod held by dutch ref church

answer the remonstance (followers of Arminius who remonstrated against the belgic confession)

Gomarists (followers of Gomarus)

5 canons of the synod can be rearranged to form TULIP
Westminster Assembly

held at westminster abbey

impetus: with the overthrowing of Charles I, the church has to decide how it will be governed...
British Parliament, which wants to reform C of england, assembles Puritan divines to unite UK ecclesiastically around a common confession

four points of uniformity

Heidelberg QA format influenced it

impetus: dead ortho in german lutheran Church

individual holiness

father if pietism: spener

phase 1 spener franke at the Halle

phase 2 zinzendorf, moravians

1. the earnest and thorough study of the Bible in private meetings, ecclesiolae in ecclesia ("little churches within the church").
2. the Christian priesthood being universal, the laity should share in the spiritual government of the Church
3. a knowledge of Christianity must be attended by the practice of it as its indispensable sign and supplement
4. instead of merely didactic, and often bitter, attacks on the heterodox and unbelievers, a sympathetic and kindly treatment of them
5. a reorganization of the theological training of the universities, giving more prominence to the devotional life
6. a different style of preaching, namely, in the place of pleasing rhetoric, the implanting of Christianity in the inner or new man, the soul of which is faith, and its effects the fruits of life.
1 GA

New england colonies

whitefield edwards freylinghuysen tennent

conversions "you must be born again"
schools founded (princeton, dartmouth, rutgers, brown)
calvinism preserved
abuses prompt correctives

prompted oldside new side
2 GA
1800-1825 (1787 hampden sydney)

beyond new england into frontier

McGready, Dwight, Baker, Nettleton, Finney
more fervor than theology of the 1GA
arminian theology (baptist shift)
emphasis on social reform
new view of revivals
democratization of amer xc

interdenominational societies
stems paganism

decline of calvinism

prompted old school new school
2 GA

split 1837

polity (presby vs. not)
union with congregationalists (no vs. yes)
volunteer societies (no vs. yes)
revivalism (no vs. yes)
theology (calvin vs. not)
auburn affirmation

Auburn NY

impetus: unity in presby Church

result: dividing line between L and C

1. Inspiration and inerrancy of Scripture;
2. The virgin birth;
3. Substitutionary atonement
4. Christ real and historical resurrection and
5. Jesus working of miracles
1000s 1300s (during medieval)

system/method of learning

prompted by: greek philosophy meets medieval theology (precursors: Carolingian Renaissance)

It was centered around the growing european universities which were themselves a product of the new cities and bourgouise

aristotle huge

dialectical method

eval: undercut mystery

Aquinas, Lombard, Abelard, Anselm of Canterbury, Scotus
Babylonian Captivity
aka avignon schism

several decades in the 1300s
popes live in france not Rome as tools of french policy- countries at war with france began to see papacy as foreign power and resented rcc

prompted by:


luthers book
1300s 1500s

imago dei

literary movement
prompted by: desire for reviving the glory of anitiquity thru Recovery of Greek and Latin classics

humanities, liberal arts

founder- Petrarch
eg. Erasmus

concern for original sources (so eg. Lorenzo Valla finds errors)

not all bad

gives rise the "text criticism" which will then lead into prot reformation
Radical Reformation

movement getting to root

wanted reformation to go faster
1 rejection of xc
2 complete sep of C and state thus 3 complete rejection of constantine xc (don't want to be magisterial reformers like calvin zwingli and luther)
4 believers baptism

diverse umbrella term

Lutheran and Swiss

Lutheran rads put spirit above scripture

Swiss: origin of anabaptist

left wing of ref
movement to purify the church of england (wrt. doctrine, worship , life)

impetus: 1500s changes in leadership led to many protestants to be exiled. some went to the "continent" where they studied under calvin. bringing back with them their geneva bible.

after elizabeths death puritans had to flea to holland and ultimately to plymouth rock and new england

connected to american presbyterianism

purifying the church

how is it different from pietism
era late 1800s early 1900s

both rcc and prot

what started it? why did people become suspicious of tradition forms. what was the appeal of the "modern"?

the questtioned the axioms of the previous age

rationality and socio-technological progress

keep our christianity but without the Bible

scientific advances had been occuring since late 1500s

reps: fosdick schliermacher

condemned by pope Pius X in 1907
movement 1920s and 1930 funda-mod contraversy

roots in american revivalism

arminian theology dispensationalist fueld debates with modernists

five fundamentals: innerancy, virgin birth, miracles, blood atonement, bodily resurrection

battle for the Bible

liberal theology

higher criticism

inerrancy debate
Neo Orthodoxy

opposed liberal theology

reinterpreted God's transcendence, huan sinfulness, centrality of Christ
who was the father
what caused the shift
what is "neo" about it
what is "ortho" about it

rejects much of liberal theology but embraces modernist biblical criticism


Disciple of the apostle John, later became bishop of Smyrna. He seems to have been the leading Christian figure in Roman Asia in the middle of the 2nd century and his long life is thus an important link between the apostolic age and the great Christian writers who flourished in the 2nd century.c

Wrote the epistle to the Corinthians stressing the importance of Apostolic succession. Considered to be the 4th pope by the Roman Catholic Church. Likely martyred under Dominitian in 100 AD .
Bishop of Antioch. Wrote seven letters giving insight into Christians' attitudes toward persecution. Opposed Gnosticism. First to distinguish between bishops and elders. Martyred under Trajan.

Heretic. Beginning around 145, Marcion taught that Jehovah, the god of the Old Testament was an arbitrary and vindictive god distinct from the God and Father of Jesus of the New Testament. He believed that the Father's purpose was to create only a spiritual world, but Jehovah, out of evil intent or ignorance made the physical world and placed mankind in it. God of the New Testament sent Jesus because he is a God of love, and in the end there will be no judgment because of his love. In order to support these v produced his own canon, rejecting the Old Testament and accepting only the book of Luke and certain edited versions of Paul's letters.

One of the great apologist of the 2nd century, he personally opposed Marcion. He also was the first orthodox writer to evaluate the relationship between Christianity and Philosophy. He taught that all truth belongs to Christians, and developed the doctrine of the logos. He was beheaded in Rome under Marcus Aurelius.
200s 300s

Father of church history, he wrote Ecclesiastical History. Bishop of Caesarea during the Arian controversy and Council of Nicea. he dealt mainly with the succession of Christian bishops and teachers from apostolic times, heresies, the suffering of the Jews, and the persecution and martyrdom of Christians. He also recounted traditions about the New Testament writers and details about the canon of Scripture. .
100s 200s

He was the first major Christian author to write in Latin. He was therefore the first to use many of the technical words common in later Christian theological debates. he lived most, if not all, his life in Carthage, capital of the Roman province of Africa. He vigorously opposed heresies in the church such as Marcionism, and was an advocate for purity and holiness in the church.
200s 300s
He was an emperor of the Roman Empire who before a 'particular battle received a vision in which he was told to place the Christian symbol "Xp" on the shields of his men. He was victorious in the battle and from that time was converted to the Christian faith. One of the most significant aspects of his rule is the Edict of Milan (313), which made the persecution of Christians illegal.

He was given this name (meaning "Golden mouth") after his death since he was such a great preacher. He was considered a great orator and exegete of Scripture and was made the Bishop of Constantinople. During this time he preached the truth of Scripture including many messages calling for repentance. He was banished from the city twice and eventually exiled to an obscure village near the Black Sea where he died.
300s 400s

An ascetic and scholarly monk. While the private secretary of the bishop of Rome. His greatest achievement was translating the Scriptures into Latin from the original languages (Vulgate)
300s 400s

British monk who settled in Rome. An opponent of Augustine, he denied that human sin was inherited from Adam. Man, he said, was free to act righteously or sinfully. Death is not a consequence of sin. Adam did not introduce sin, but merely was a bad example. Thus, it is possible not to sin. Man is able to chose salvation, and is able to live for God without the agency of the Holy Spirit.
300s 400s

One of the greatest and most influential leaders of the western church, he lived during the disintegration of the Roman empire. In 391 he was ordained a priest and four years later was elevated to Bishop of Hippo. He battled Donatism and Pelagianism. His writings include The City of God and Confessions . He was a staunch advocate for the depravity of man and the primacy of grace in salvation. His works on sin, grace, and predestination laid the groundwork of the Reformation.
Benard of Clairvaux

The last of the church fathers; mystic, monk and theologian. He was a strong spiritual reformer- the leader of the Cistercian movement. He was the major preacher of the Second Crusade and held to a full Augustinian view.
Gregory the Great

Considered one of the ablest men to occupy the position of Pope- some call him the father of the Medieval papacy. He became pope in 590 after previously serving many other leadership roles in the church. A strong civic and spiritual leader, he brought order to Rome and helped establish the idea that the Pope was the supreme authority in the church. Wrote The Pastoral Rule
Francis of Assisi
1100s 1200s
An innovator of the Roman system, he believed that the most serious problem in the church was worldliness and set to rebuild the church around the pattern of living like Jesus- an ascetic lifestyle, the life of poverty. In 1215, his order of Lesser Brothers received Papal approval.
Archbishop of Canterbury, and known as the father of scholasticism, he introduced a new theory of the atonement- the satisfaction theory- saying that man’s sin is a debt to God, not the devil and that Christ’s death alone has satisfied God’s offended sense of honor. He tried to make the content of Christian faith clear to reason, though insisted that faith must come first. Developed two proofs for the existence of God; the ontological and the cosmological.
Dominican monk-turned teacher, he was the author of the monumental Summa Theologica, the summary of the Roman Catholic Church. Scholasticism reached its pinnacle in his writings. Combining the greatest of the ancient Greek philosophers, particularly Aristotle, with Christian thought, he built a theological system, which has been accepted as the basis for all Roman Catholic theological instruction today.
Morning Star of the Reformation.
Translated the Bible into middle English. Declared a heretic in 1382
Believed the Bible is the supreme authority, that the clergy should hold no propriety, that there was no basis for the doctrine of transubstantiation.
He was a fore-runner to the Reformation. . -
Preached against the abuses of the Catholic Church, especially the morality of the priests, preaching of the Bible in the common language of the people (not Latin), opposed the sale . of indulgences, and Papal infallibility. He wanted the church to practice Communion "in both kinds".
Excommunicated from the church and burned at the stake 1415.
Was a Bohemian priest who discovered Wycliffe's religious writings. He compared the character of the Pope to that of Christ, discovering that the Pope fell quite short of the mark. Thus he was excommunicated, and burned at the stake.
1400 1500
An English Bible translator.
The 1611 King James Version is 90% the work of him .Was martyred for his opposition to the Pope in 1536.
1400s 1500s
Credited with being the father of the Reformation for his posting of the 95 thesis on the church door in Wittenburg, Germany 1517.
Excommunicated from the Catholic church when he refused to recant his positions after the Diet of Worms.
An accomplished preacher, author, and hymn writer . .Father of the Lutheran church
Disagreed with Calvin on the issue of communion as he believed "consubstanciation."
1400s 1500s
An associate of Luther who brought a soft gentle nature to Luther's very course mannerisms.
Wrote Loci Communes and "Augsburg Confession."
Shifted toward Erasmus; theology of salvation and towards Calvin's view of the Lord's ,"'
Supper (Christ not present for the sake of the bread, but for the sake of man).
1400 1500
Swiss Reformer. Perhaps the third best known Reformers behind Calvin and Luther. Disagreed with Luther over issue of whether or not we may do what the Bible does not
forbid. Luther says we may, he says no.
Fought the "Radical Reformation" over the pace (he wanted slower) of the Reformation.lt1 a. Believed that Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper was spiritual not physical.
Born French, he was "suddenly" converted sometime between 1532-34. First published his Institutes in 1536.
Served as pastor in Geneva, expelled, and returned three years later
Some think he set up a theocratic dictatorship there, but that is untrue-
Had a major effect on the organization and expression of what we call Reformed Theology.
Final edition of the Institutes published in 1559. Died in 1564.
Bishop of Rochester. Upon the ascendancy of Mary Stuart as queen of Scots, he fled to the Continent where he was influenced by Calvin. In 1559, he returned to Scotland, and became the leader of the Scots Reformation. He helped draft the Scots Confession of Faith, and the Book of Discipline. He is remembered as the founder of Presbyterianism and theories on liberty and government.
Name applied to those Scottish Presbyterians who signed the National _______ and the Solemn League as well as to their followers. They resisted the Episcopal, "system of church government and the divine right of Kings (conflicting with the Stuart dynasty).
A progressive Protestant Dutch theologian, he was the author of a brand of theology known as ______ developed as a reaction against what he saw as the sternness of Calvinism. he discarded the idea of unconditional predestination and taught that man had freedom to choose or reject salvation. He was the first to urge that the state tolerate all religions and emphasized the more practical aspects of faith instead of the creedal.
Amyraut and school of Saumer
French theologian and preacher, developed the doctrine of "hypothetical universalism" known as ________. It taught that God wills all men to be saved, but because of inherited corruption, men reject hirn, so 2) God wills to save his elect by grace.

he read the institutes...written less than 100 years before his time
Theologian and pastor. Perhaps America's best theologian remembered for stressing the inseparability of an intellectual Reformed faith from "experimental" religion. His writings include: "The Freedom of the Will" and "Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God."
Puritan preacher. Read him for his evangelism, spiritual counsel and church renewal, but not for grace centered living. He wrote The Reformed Pastor, A Call to The Unconverted, and A Christian Directory.
Count Zinzendorf
The founder of the Moravian Church. He was a German whose importance lies in the creation of a missionary, service-oriented, ecumenical free church based upon a common experience of salvation and mutual love, and the emphasis upon deep, emotional religious expression which was intended to breathe new life into Protestantism.
An English Calvinistic revivalist who was a major figure in the Great Awakening. Known for his eloquence and incredible speaking voice, he would preach to thousands gathered in the countryside. He was also influential in the founding of orphanages across the colonies. His eloquence and intelligence earned him the friendship of such notables as Benjamin Franklin.
An Arminian revivalist who, with the help of _______, founded Methodism as a movement within the Anglican Church. An itinerate preacher who was greatly influenced by the German Moravians, he was one of the major forces behind the Evangelical revival in England. The Methodists stressed personal piety and devotion, as well as man's free choice to receive God's grace. he emphasized the teaching of justification by faith alone and the pursuit of holiness to the point of "Christian perfection."
A controversy in the Church of Scotland over rival theological views of legalism and merit in contrast to God's grace in Jesus Christ. The basis of the controversy was over a book, The ______ of Modem Divinity, which advocated strongly Calvinistic doctrines and was held to favor antinomianism.
1700s 1800s
Shoemaker turned missionary, ____ had a vision for the church to be involved in foreign missions. His was the first real attempt at foreign missions by the Protestant church. In 1793 the Baptist Missionary Society sent ____ to India. Stationed near Calcutta, he and his colleagues translated the Bible into many of the native languages, set up printing presses, and colleges. His life inspired other missionaries to take the gospel to the ends of the earth, adopting his motto: "Attempt great things for God; expect great things from God."
Greatly influenced by Pietism and known mainly for his orphanage work in Bristol England. When his second orphanage was built, he and his wife began to travel around the world preaching the gospel. He was known for his "faith mission" principle in which he received miraculous answers to prayer.
Calvinistic Baptist preacher and avid reader of the Puritans, known fondly as "The Prince of Preachers." In 1854 he became the pastor of a large congregation in London which built the Metropolitan Tabernacle to hold the crowds that came to hear him preach. He likely has more sermons published than any other preacher in history.
The best-known proponent of the Princeton theology. A noted polemicist, _____ is remembered for his rational defense of the Reformed faith, and for his defense of creationism against naturalistic evolution.
1800s 1900s
One of the last of the great Princeton theologians, respected for his scholarly defense of Augustinian Calvinism. He is remembered for his intellectual defense of Biblical inerrancy in the face of Scheierrnacherian and Ritschlian liberalism.
After training to be a lawyer, _____ became a Presbyterian revivalist, and the father of the New School movement. He employed "New measures" of pragmatic techniques such as the anxious seat, to win souls. He was a key force in the Northern section of the Second Great Awakening of the first half of the 19th century .