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hat is the value of studying church history?
There are many reasons to study church history, but perhaps the most significant is the fact that it is the means by which we learn from example (both positive and negative) of our predecessors, which assists us in "expanding our present" and "shaping our future." As well, the study of Church history prevents us from being abstract, theoretical, and academic regarding truth, as it enables us to see how truth relates to life's practicalities." A third reason would be that the sin patterns of a different generation would be different from our own, and therefore they could inform us of our abuses of the Word of God.
Briefly trace the spread of Christianity through the centuries.
• Resurrection-100 AD The gospel began to spread through most of the Mediterranean region as well as reaching Mesopotamia, Syria, and likely India. • 100—325 In the 2nd Century, the church spread into Gaul (France), Germany, and North Africa. In the 3rd Century, Christianity moved into Persia and most of Asia Minor. In the face of intense Roman persecution, Christianity had grown and had churches in most Roman provinces, spreading throughout the Roman empire and even beyond. • 325-600 Reached the British isles where Ireland became a sending off point for missionaries • 500-700AD With the rise of Islam in the face of half-hearted Christianity, some areas like the Middle East and North Africa, previously strongholds of the gospel became desolate of Christianity. • 700-1500 Up to the split of the Eastern and Western Church in 1050 and the period of stagnation and the damage of the crusades- Christianity began to make inroads into East Asia during the latter part of this period. • 1500-1600 Reformation led to a renewed push for missions and revival among churches. • 1600-1800 Colonization leads to the spread of Christianity to America, Australia and Western and Southern Africa. • 1800-1900 Modern missionary movement William Carey, Hudson Taylor, etc. • 1900-2000 The Gospel flourishes in Asia, Africa, and South America.
What were the “sola's” of the Reformation?
Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone), Sola Fides (Faith alone), Sola Gratia (Grace alone), Sola Christos (Christ alone), Soli Deo Gloria (Only to the Glory of God)
Briefly discuss the development of 'covenant theology'
Ultimately Covenant theology begins in Scripture and was to some extent developed by Augustine. What we know as covenant theology first appeared in the works of Zwingli and Bullinger. Calvin, whose name is usually most associated with covenant theology really only has it in seed form. It gained greater strength among 17th century theologians where it became known as federal theology. Ursinus and especially Olevianus, the founder of a well-developed federal theology, developed the understanding of the covenant of works and the covenant of grace and subordinated the covenant to the doctrine of election. Cocceius stressed the Biblical theology approach of looking at the covenant history (pre-Vos). Prior to this century, covenant theology saw the covenant as a contractual agreement between God entered into with man. With more recent language and archaeological discoveries, covenant theology has come to emphasize the relationship between God and man as a vassal relationship, patterned after the covenants of that time, established and maintained by God’s grace. Through this theology a greater emphasis was placed on God's gracious and faithful dealing with mankind.
What are the historical origins and distinctives of the following: a. Methodist Churches
Origins: Began in Oxford University as a movement within the Church of England and expanded under the leadership of Charles and John Wesley Distinctives: Typically has been concerned with ministry to the poor and disadvantages, expressing its faith in compassion for human condition.
b. Pentecostal Churches
Origins: Born out of the movement that was sparked in 1901 when Miss Agnes Ozman, a Bethel Bible College student, spoke in tongues after principal Charles Partham laid hands on her and prayed for her to receive the power of the Spirit. Distinctives: Seeking to receive the gift of tongues is regarded as a sign of baptism of the Holy Spirit, itself a requisite for full discipleship. Other gifts are sought as well: healing, love, joy, answers to prayer, etc.
c. Episcopal Churches
Origins: the Episcopalian Church began in America as an extension of the Church of England. However, During the American Revolution a great controversy arose over prayers for the monarchy in the liturgy, so after the revolution it severed ties with the Church of England and became its own denomination. Distinctives: Acknowledges no central authority, though maintains a hierarchy of bishops, relies totally on traditional liturgical worship, while not defining the exact nature of the communion element (regarded as a mystery).
d. Presbyterian Churches
Origins: Dating back to John Knox in 1560 and the Scots Confession becoming the expression of government assigned by the Westminster Assembly in the Form of Government. Distinctives: Offices of Teaching Elder and Ruling Elder. Usually hold to the WCF, Spiritual presence in the elements (Calvin),
e. Baptist Churches
Origins: A third-generation Reformation development that appeared in England about 1610 wanting to take Protestantism to its logical conclusion. Convinced that Puritanism needed to still be reformed. Distinctives: Believe only self-professed believers are eligible for admission to the church. Practice believer-baptism, evangelistic, missions and biblically minded
f. Orthodox Churches
Origins: 1056 schism between East and West (Bishop of Constantinople vs. Bishop of Rome) Distinctives: icons, 7 Ecumenical Councils, don’t hold to the Pope, traditionalist, ornate to use all senses in worship
g. Mennonite Churches
Origins: Dating from 1520’s in central Europe, take name from Menno Simmons who led them in a pursuit of biblical living. Distinctives: No common doctrine, rejection of infant baptism, real presence at the Lord’s supper, pacifist, no oaths, complete separation of church and state
h. Lutheran churches
Origins: Germany; Martin Luther, 1517 October 31 commonly the beginning of the reformation. 1521 Diet of Worms which lead to Luther’s excommunication. Distinctives: Consubstantiation, Salvation by grace, justification by faith, Augsburg Confession (and the Book of Concord)
Briefly identify and give dates for the following: Council of Nicea
325. The council of Nicea was concerned primarily with the nature of the second person of the trinity—Jesus Christ. Arius asserted that Christ was not eternally generated from the Father, but created from the non-existent. Athanasius and his followers asserted that Christ was eternally begotten of the father. The semi-Arians argued that Christ was homoiousios ("of similar substance") with the father. The Council adopted the Athanasian position of homoousios ("the same essence").
Council of Chalcedon
451. The Christological council. Christ is one person, with two natures. The Council of Chalcedon dealt with the heresies of Nestorianism and Eutychianism. The Eutychians taught that Christ possessed two natures in one person, and that each performs its own function. The Council asserted that the redemption of fallen humans required a mediator who was human and divine, passible and impassible, mortal and immortal, and that Jesus Christ permanently assumed human nature. Significantly the Council asserted that properties of both Christ's human and divine natures can be attributed to one person, that the suffering “I” ; of the God-man can be regarded as truly, really infinite, yet the divine nature remained impassible, that divinity and not humanity is the root and basis of Christ' s personality, and that the logos did not unite with a distinct human individual, but with a human nature.
Reformation
Sola Scripture: Scripture alone. Sola Fide: Faith alone. Sola Gratia: Grace alone. Sola Christos: Christ alone. Soli Deo Gloria: To God alone be the glory. 1517. We may use this as a date for the Reformation since the beginning of the Reformation is traditionally tied to Luther's nailing of his Ninety-five theses to the door at Wittenburg. This was the culmination of a developing movement to reform the Catholic Church from it medieval laxity. Above all it was a time of spiritual renewal in which God graciously intervened to return his gospel to the center stage of human history.
Counter-Reformation
1534-1563 (1540'5). The Counter-reformation was the Catholic response to the Reformation in which many of the abuses of the Catholic church were corrected, and traditional Catholic doctrine was resoundingly re-affirmed. This formulated in the articles of the Council of Trent, a council which was held to combat the spread of Protestantism. Affirmed that Church/tradition were on par with Scripture, sacraments and transubstantiation, and justification is faith plus works.
Heidelberg Catechism
1563. Written by Olevianus and Ursinus this beautiful work has the form of a catechism, but the content of a confession. Held by the Continental Reformed Church (European-German, Dutch). Many say the Heidelberg Catechism has a more personal feel than the Westminster Confession.
Belgic Confession
1561. Written by Guido de Bres this confession is one of the three standards of the Dutch Reformed Church. It draws heavily on the Gallican Confession.
Synod of Dort
1618. A convening of Reformed thinkers to answer the assertions of the Remonstrants. Although political and other issues affecting the Dutch church were raised at this Synod, its primary business was answering the five points of Arminianism. Their response is what we today know as TULIP, or the five points of Calvinism.
Westminster Assembly
1643-1652. The Westminster Assembly was a gathering of eminent Puritan divines, assembled by the British Parliament in 1643 with the charge of producing a Confession of Faith to unite the United Kingdom ecclesiastically. The assembly sat from 1643-1652, during which time it handled ecclesiastical concerns such as the ordination of ministers, trial of heretics, etc. its most enduring work is the Confession of Faith, and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms. These would become the standard of faith and practice for the Presbyterian, Congregational and Regular Baptist churches in Scotland, England and America. The Confession and Catechisms were borne out of Scotch and English Calvinism, and were structured upon the foundation of the "Irish Articles of Faith" of 1615.
Pietism
1600's. Primarily based in Germany, it was a movement against dead orthodoxy in the Lutheran Church. The common emphasis was on individual conversion and living orthodoxy that lead to a changed life. The duo of Spener and Franke at the Halle began the movement which was later carried by Zinzendorf and the Moravians. The movement played a large influence in the development of the modern missionary movement. Emphases: *Individual experience over theology *New birth *Spiritual discipline *Lay involvement in the church *Renewal preaching *Love for all people.
Great Awakening(s)
First Great Awakening: 1741-1745. The Great Awakening was a remarkable outpouring of the Holy Spirit that swept through New England colonies. Through the Reformed preaching of George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards, thousands were truly converted to Christ. There were however, many instances of abuse that accompanied the outpouring prompting the able mind of Edwards to defend the true nature of the Awakening in such works as ''Distinguishing Marks" and "Treatise on the Religious Affections." Tennet: "Danger of an unconverted ministry ." Second Great Awakening 1800-1825. After the First Great Awakening steady religious decline brought the country to a new religious low by the 1800's. Unlike the First Great Awakening this revival went in to the frontier as well. It was also characterized by a longer duration and more fervor than concern for theology. This awakening led to significant church growth, improvement of morals and national life, checking of the growth of Deism, growth of missions, and social reform movements. It left a permanent mark on the American evangelical scene with its revivalistic emphasis and Arminian theology.
Scholasticism
The system and method of learning for philosophy and theology during the medieval period as developed in European university contexts. It relied on philosophical methods and the use of reason to make clear divisions and distinctions within a body of knowledge. The system flourished from the 11 th-14th centuries. Some notable scholastics include: Thomas Aquinas, Peter Abelard, Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Lombard and Duns Scotus.
Babylonian Captivity
Also known as the Avignon schism. Period in the 14th century when popes lived in Avignon, France, due to the political situation. The term, which referred to the Jews' captivity in Babylon (586 BC), was used by Luther in the 16th century to describe the Roman Catholic Church's "captivity" to the papacy and need for gospel liberation.
Humanism
An intellectual movement in 14th-16th century Europe in which man was the measure of all things. It sought to base education on the Greek and Latin classics, interpreted from within a Christian context. Theologically, the term indicates the high value that Christianity places on humans as created and redeemed by God.
Radical Reformation
The "left" of "third" wind of the Protestant Reformation that describes those who sought a radical approach, a return to early Christian precedents for the nature and government of the church, rejecting national or state churches. Among others it included the Anabaptists such as the Mennonites and the Amish.
Puritanism
16th and 17th century Protestant religious movement that sought to "purify" the Church of England in more Reformed Protestant directions. The movement was Calvinistic in theology -and Presbyterian or Congregational in church government. The church reform impulses were continued in America, primarily in New England where it was a major cultural force. Puritans stressed theology as leading to ethical action while ethics is grounded in true theology.
Modernism
A theological movement of the late 19th and early 20tb centuries among Protestants and Roman Catholics who sought to interpret Christianity in light of modern knowledge. It sought to alter Christian doctrine, which was seen as evolving and in need of being reshaped by modern knowledge. It was condemned by Pope Pius X in 1907. Schliermacher, Fosdick.
Fundamentalism
Term for evangelicalism in 20th century America that sought to preserve conservative Protestant views and values against liberal theology and the higher criticism of Scripture. A strong focus was on the inerrancy and literal interpretation of Scripture.
Neo-orthodoxy
Return to Christianity without having to be historically grounded. Somewhat a theological rediscovery of biblical doctrines, but with the modem naturalistic presuppositions. A theological movement including Karl Barth, Emil Brunner, and others. It opposed liberal theology and stressed the reinterpretation of Reformation themes such as God's transcendence, human sinfulness, and the centrality of Christ. It was dominant in Europe and America after World War n until the 1960's. Also called Neo-Calvinism, Neo-Protestantism, and Neo-Reformation theology.
Briefly identify the following people with date (century) and their significance: 1. Polycarp
[2nd century] Disciple of the apostle John, later became bishop of Smyrna. He seems to have been the leading Christian figure in Roman Asia in the middle of the 2nd century and his long life is thus an important link between the apostolic age and the great Christian writers who flourished in the 2nd century.
Clement
[1st century] Wrote the epistle to the Corinthians stressing the importance of Apostolic succession. Considered to be the 4th pope by the Roman Catholic Church. Likely martyred under Dominitian in 100 AD .
Ignatius
[2nd century] Bishop of Antioch. Wrote seven letters giving insight into Christians' attitudes toward persecution. Opposed Gnosticism. First to distinguish between bishops and elders. Martyred under Trajan.
Marcion
[2nd century] Heretic. Beginning around 145, Marcion taught that Jehovah, the god of the Old Testament was an arbitrary and vindictive god distinct from the God and Father of Jesus of the New Testament. He believed that the Father's purpose was to create only a spiritual world, but Jehovah, out of evil intent or ignorance made the physical world and placed mankind in it. God of the New Testament sent Jesus because he is a God of love, and in the end there will be no judgment because of his love. In order to support these views Marcion produced his own canon, rejecting the Old Testament and accepting only the book of Luke and certain edited versions of Paul's letters.
Justin
[2nd century] One of the great apologist of the 2nd century, he personally opposed Marcion. He also was the first orthodox writer to evaluate the relationship between Christianity and Philosophy. He taught that all truth belongs to Christians, and developed the doctrine of the logos. He was beheaded in Rome under Marcus Aurelius.
Eusebius of Caesarea
[3rd-4th century] Father of church history, he wrote Ecclesiastical History. Bishop of Caesarea during the Arian controversy and Council of Nicea. Eusebius dealt mainly with the succession of Christian bishops and teachers from apostolic times, heresies, the suffering of the Jews, and the persecution and martyrdom of Christians. He also recounted traditions about the New Testament writers and details about the canon of Scripture. .
Tertullian
[2nd-3rd century] He was the first major Christian author to write in Latin. He was therefore the first to use many of the technical words common in later Christian theological debates. Tertullian lived most, if not all, his life in Carthage, capital of the Roman province of Africa. He vigorously opposed heresies in the church such as Marcionism, and was an advocate for purity and holiness in the church.
Constantine
[3-4th century] He was an emperor of the Roman Empire who before a 'particular battle received a vision in which he was told to place the Christian symbol "Xp" on the shields of his men. He was victorious in the battle and from that time was converted to the Christian faith. One of the most significant aspects of Constantine's rule is the Edict of Milan (313), which made the persecution of Christians illegal.
Chrysostom
[4th century] He was given this name (meaning "Golden mouth") after his death since he was such a great preacher. He was considered a great orator and exegete of Scripture and was made the Bishop of Constantinople. During this time he preached the truth of Scripture including many messages calling for repentance. He was banished from the city twice and eventually exiled to an obscure village near the Black Sea where he died.
Jerome
[4-5 century] An ascetic and scholarly monk. While the private secretary of the bishop of Rome. His greatest achievement was translating the Scriptures into Latin from the original languages (Vulgate)
Pelagius
[4-5 century] British monk who settled in Rome. An opponent of Augustine, he denied that human sin was inherited from Adam. Man, he said, was free to act righteously or sinfully. Death is not a consequence of sin. Adam did not introduce sin, but merely was a bad example. Thus, it is possible not to sin. Man is able to chose salvation, and is able to live for God without the agency of the Holy Spirit.
. Augustine
[4-5 century] One of the greatest and most influential leaders of the western church, Augustine lived during the disintegration of the Roman empire. In 391 he was ordained a priest and four years later was elevated to Bishop of Hippo. He battled Donatism and Pelagianism. His writings include The City of God and Confessions . He was a staunch advocate for the depravity of man and the primacy of grace in salvation. His works on sin, grace, and predestination laid the groundwork of the Reformation.
Bernard of Clairvaux
[12th century] The last of the church fathers; mystic, monk and theologian. He was a strong spiritual reformer- the leader of the Cistercian movement. He was the major preacher of the Second Crusade and held to a full Augustinian view.
Gregory the Great
[6th century] Considered one of the ablest men to occupy the position of Pope- some call him the father of the Medieval papacy. He became pope in 590 after previously serving many other leadership roles in the church. A strong civic and spiritual leader, he brought order to Rome and helped establish the idea that the Pope was the supreme authority in the church. Wrote The Pastoral Rule
Francis of Assisi
[12-13th century] An innovator of the Roman system, he believed that the most serious problem in the church was worldliness and set to rebuild the church around the pattern of living like Jesus- an ascetic lifestyle, the life of poverty. In 1215, his order of Lesser Brothers received Papal approval.
Anselm
11th century] Archbishop of Canterbury, and known as the father of scholasticism, Anselm introduced a new theory of the atonement- the satisfaction theory- saying that man’s sin is a debt to God, not the devil and that Christ’s death alone has satisfied God’s offended sense of honor. He tried to make the content of Christian faith clear to reason, though insisted that faith must come first. Developed two proofs for the existence of God; the ontological and the cosmological.
Aquinas
[13th century] Dominican monk-turned teacher, Aquinas was the author of the monumental Summa Theologica, the summary of the Roman Catholic Church. Scholasticism reached its pinnacle in Aquinas’ writings. Combining the greatest of the ancient Greek philosophers, particularly Aristotle, with Christian thought, Aquinas built a theological system, which has been accepted as the basis for all Roman Catholic theological instruction today.
Wycliffe
[14th century] Morning Star of the Reformation. Translated the Bible into middle English. Declared a heretic in 1382 Believed the Bible is the supreme authority, that the clergy should hold no propriety, that there was no basis for the doctrine of transubstantiation. He was a fore-runner to the Reformation. . -
Hus
[14th century] Preached against the abuses of the Catholic Church, especially the morality of the priests, preaching of the Bible in the common language of the people (not Latin), opposed the sale . of indulgences, and Papal infallibility. He wanted the church to practice Communion "in both kinds". Excommunicated from the church and burned at the stake 1415. Was a Bohemian priest who discovered Wycliffe's religious writings. He compared the character of the Pope to that of Christ, discovering that the Pope fell quite short of the mark. Thus he was excommunicated, and burned at the stake.
Tyndal
[15-16th century] An English Bible translator. The 1611 King James Version is 90% the work of Tyndal .Was martyred for his opposition to the Pope in 1536.
Luther
[15-16th century] Credited with being the father of the Reformation for his posting of the 95 thesis on the church door in Wittenburg, Germany 1517. Excommunicated from the Catholic church when he refused to recant his positions after the Diet of Worms. An accomplished preacher, author, and hymn writer . .Father of the Lutheran church Disagreed with Calvin on the issue of communion as he believed "consubstanciation."
Melanchthon
[15-16th century ] An associate of Luther who brought a soft gentle nature to Luther's very course mannerisms. Wrote Loci Communes and "Augsburg Confession." Shifted toward Erasmus; theology of salvation and towards Calvin's view of the Lord's ,"' Supper (Christ not present for the sake of the bread, but for the sake of man).
Zwingli
[15-16th century] Swiss Reformer. Perhaps the third best known Reformers behind Calvin and Luther. Disagreed with Luther over issue of whether or not we may do what the Bible does not forbid. Luther says we may, Zwingli says no. Fought the "Radical Reformation" over the pace (he wanted slower) of the Reformation.lt1 a. Believed that Christ's presence in the Lord's Supper was spiritual not physical.
Calvin
[16th century] Born French, he was "suddenly" converted sometime between 1532-34. First published his Institutes in 1536. Served as pastor in Geneva, expelled, and returned three years later Some think he set up a theocratic dictatorship there, but that is untrue- Had a major effect on the organization and expression of what we call Reformed Theology. Final edition of the Institutes published in 1559. Died in 1564.
Knox
[16th century] Bishop of Rochester. Upon the ascendancy of Mary Stuart as queen of Scots, he fled to the Continent where he was influenced by Calvin. In 1559, he returned to Scotland, and became the leader of the Scots Reformation. He helped draft the Scots Confession of Faith, and the Book of Discipline. He is remembered as the founder of Presbyterianism and theories on liberty and government.
Covenanters
[17th century] Name applied to those Scottish Presbyterians who signed the National Covenant and the Solemn League as well as to their followers. They resisted the Episcopal, "system of church government and the divine right of Kings (conflicting with the Stuart dynasty).
Arminius:
[16th century] A progressive Protestant Dutch theologian, Arminius was the author of a brand of theology known as Arminianism developed as a reaction against what he saw as the sternness of Calvinism. Arminius discarded the idea of unconditional predestination and taught that man had freedom to choose or reject salvation. He was the first to urge that the state tolerate all religions and emphasized the more practical aspects of faith instead of the creedal.
Amyraut and the School of Saumur
[17 century] French theologian and preacher, developed the doctrine of "hypothetical universalism" known as Amyraldianism. It taught that God wills all men to be saved, but because of inherited corruption, men reject hirn, so 2) God wills to save his elect by grace.
Jonathan Edwards:
: [18th century] Theologian and pastor. Perhaps America's best theologian remembered for stressing the inseparability of an intellectual Reformed faith from "experimental" religion. His writings include: "The Freedom of the Will" and "Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God."
Richard Baxter:
[17th century] Puritan preacher. Read him for his evangelism, spiritual counsel and church renewal, but not for grace centered living. He wrote The Reformed Pastor, A Call to The Unconverted, and A Christian Directory.
Zinzendorf:
[18th century] The founder of the Moravian Church. He was a German count whose importance lies in the creation of a missionary, service-oriented, ecumenical free church based upon a common experience of salvation and mutual love, and the emphasis upon deep, emotional religious expression which was intended to breathe new life into Protestantism.
George Whitefield
: [18th century] An English Calvinistic revivalist who was a major figure in the Great Awakening. Known for his eloquence and incredible speaking voice, he would preach to thousands gathered in the countryside. He was also influential in the founding of orphanages across the colonies. His eloquence and intelligence earned him the friendship of such notables as Benjamin Franklin.
John Wesley
: [18th century] An Arminian revivalist who, with the help of his brother Charles, founded Methodism as a movement within the Anglican Church. An itinerate preacher who was greatly influenced by the German Moravians, Wesley was one of the major forces behind the Evangelical revival in England. The Methodists stressed personal piety and devotion, as well as man's free choice to receive God's grace. Wesley emphasized the teaching of justification by faith alone and the pursuit of holiness to the point of "Christian perfection."
34. Marrow Controversy:
[18th century] A controversy in the Church of Scotland over rival theological views of legalism and merit in contrast to God's grace in Jesus Christ. The basis of the controversy was over a book, The Marrow of Modem Divinity, which advocated strongly Calvinistic doctrines and was held to favor antinomianism.
William Carey
[18-19th century] Shoemaker turned missionary, Carey had a vision for the church to be involved in foreign missions. His was the first real attempt at foreign missions by the Protestant church. In 1793 the Baptist Missionary Society sent Carey to India. Stationed near Calcutta, he and his colleagues translated the Bible into many of the native languages, set up printing presses, and colleges. His life inspired other missionaries to take the gospel to the ends of the earth, adopting his motto: "Attempt great things for God; expect great things from God."
George Muller
[19th century] Greatly influenced by Pietism and known mainly for his orphanage work in Bristol England. When his second orphanage was built, he and his wife began to travel around the world preaching the gospel. He was known for his "faith mission" principle in which he received miraculous answers to prayer.
Charles Spurgeon
[19th century] Calvinistic Baptist preacher and avid reader of the Puritans, known fondly as "The Prince of Preachers." In 1854 he became the pastor of a large congregation in London which built the Metropolitan Tabernacle to hold the crowds that came to hear him preach. He likely has more sermons published than any other preacher in history.
Charles Hodge
[19th century] The best-known proponent of the Princeton theology. A noted polemicist, Hodge is remembered for his rational defense of the Reformed faith, and for his defense of creationism against naturalistic evolution.
. B. B. Warfield
[19-20th century ] One of the last of the great Princeton theologians, respected for his scholarly defense of Augustinian Calvinism. He is remembered for his intellectual defense of Biblical inerrancy in the face of Scheierrnacherian and Ritschlian liberalism.
Charles Finney
[19th century] After training to be a lawyer, Finney became a Presbyterian revivalist, and the father of the New School movement. He employed "New measures" of pragmatic techniques such as the anxious seat, to win souls. He was a key force in the Northern section of the Second Great Awakening of the first half of the 19th century .
. D. L. Moody
[ 19th century] Dispensationalist revivalist, famous for his "sinking ship" theory: the world is lost, and Christians must endeavor only to save as many souls as they can before the end. Moody's emphasis led to the rampant separationism of the fundamentalist movement.
1. Discuss the controversy between modernism and fundamentalism. Be sure in your answer to identify and explain the significance of the Auburn Affirmation (who signed it? why? when?), the "five fundamentals," Harry Emerson Fosdick, and J. Gresham Machen.
Riding on a high tide of German higher criticism, liberalism infected the American church in the late 19th century. The issue would come to the fore in the Presbyterian Church USA in 1923, when 150 ministers signed an affirmation denying the necessity of subscription to the five fundamentals for ordination to the gospel ministry in the PCUSA. While many other institutions had fallen under liberalism, Old Princeton remained the bastion of Calvinist orthodoxy and intellectual defense of the Christian faith. When re-structuring of her board was ordered by the General Assembly, an action which would surely change her character, many of her orthodox faculty, under the leadership of NT scholar J. Gresham Machen, left to form Westminster Theological Seminary in 1929. When Machen and his followers objected to their tithes towards missions going to non-Christian pluralistic missions work, and established the Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Missions, they were defrocked by the PCUSA. They went on to found the Orthodox Presbyterian Church in 1936. Soon finding that they had been bound only by a common enemy, Machen and his fellow Old School Calvinists, and the dispentionalists, parted ways. Thus, under the leadership of Carl McIntire, the Bible Presbyterian Church was formed out of the dispensational group. (McIntosh)
2. Trace the historical roots of the RPC~. From which major branch of Presbyterianism did the RPC~ come? Why is the RPCES important in PCA history? Be sure in your answer to identify and explain the significance of the Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Missions, J. Oliver Buswell, Robert Rayburn, Francis Schaeffer, and Carl Mclntire.
Conservatives in the PCUSA formed their own denomination, the Presbyterian Church of America (1936), because of the modernists movement in the PCUSA- however, when the common cause of battling the modernists grew less intense because of the successful formation of the new denomination, difference began to surface. These difference were along the lines of eschatology and the use/nonuse of alcoholic beverages. This difference split the denomination. The group favoring pre-millenialism and complete abstinence from alcohol and tobacco formed the Bible Presbyterian Church in 1938. The Presbyterian Church of America renamed themselves a year later to the the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. The Bible Presbyterian Church split in 1956, once under Carl McIntrye who was resolved to keep mission boards and seminaries out from under denominational control. This split resulted in the Bible Presbyterian Church, Collinswood synod (McIntyre’s group) and the Bible Presbyterian Church, Columbus synod. The Columbus synod changed their name to the Evangelical Presbyterian Church and soon merged with the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, General synod to form the Reformed Presbyterian Church Evangelical Synod (RPCES). Thus, the RPCES came out of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, Northern Presbyterian Church.
3. Trace the history of the formation of the PCA. When, where and why did the PCA begin? From what major branch of Presbyterianism did early members of the PCA come? Be sure in your answer to identify and explain the significance of the Presbyterian Evangelistic Fellowship, Concerned Presbyterians, the Presbyterian Journal, Morton H. Smith, W. Jack Williamson, Ken Keyes, and G. Aiken Taylor.
The Presbyterian Church in America was formed in 1973, under the name The National Presbyterian Church. The church was formed as a continuing biblical Presbyterian denomination, out of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (the Southern Presbyterian Church). Due to the rampant liberalism, especially in the form of Barthianism, in that denomination, several organizations had been formed to preserve the gospel witness in that denomination. These included the Concerned Presbyterians, Presbyterian Churchmen United, the Presbyterian Evangelsitic Fellowship, and Reformed Theological Seminary. When things had progressed to such a stage where a majority of these men came to a conviction that the PCUS was no longer a viable organ of gospel witness, they organized to form the PCA. The first General Assembly was held at Briarwood Church in Birmingham Alabama, in 1973. Col. Jack Williamson was elected moderator and Morton Smith was elected Stated Clerk. Two other denominations were asked to merge with the PCA: The OPC and the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod(RPC, ES). The RPCES accepted, and in 1982 joined and was received by the PCA bringing with them Covenant College and Covenant Theological Seminary. Today the PCA continues to offer itself as a biblically based denomination: True to the Scriptures, the Reformed faith, and obedient to the Great Commission.- Mcintosh
When was the American Revolution
roughly 1775-1783
What is the name of the confession which John Knox wrote along with several others
scots confession 1560- first reformed confession in english language
What was the east west schism about
power struggle between rome and constantinople- rome popes claimed primacy- whereas eastern church was conciliar (meaning councils made decisions not popes) Filioque
name a key figure in the radical reformation
menno simmons
what confession marks the real birth of the anabaptist movement
Schleitheim Confession 1527
What characterizes menno simmons
dutch catholic priest pacifism separation from world- and stte believed in"blessings of cross bearing"
sig of diet of worms
edict of worms addressing luther and protestantism. Charles V presiding
results of nicea
christ is one substance arius condemned nicene creed
results of constantinople
reaffirmed nicea revised nicene condemned apollinarianism (jesus is only partially human) affirmed diety of HS
results of ephesus
Jesus Christ is one real person condemned Nestorianism condemned pelagius (jesus created) vs. augustine (jesus not created0
chalcedon
summed up the last 100 years debate affirmed jesus is one person with two natures (hypostatic two natures) perfect and complete (ct. apol) with confusiion or conversion(ct. Eut ) with division or separateion ( ct. Nest- absorbed into the divine)
with what movement is spener and franke associated
pietism
why is humanism of the 1300s to 1500s called humanism
places high values on humans as created by God
what are the four groups that were concerned about pc us
southern presbyterian concerned presbyterians presbyterian churchman united presbyterian evangelistic fellowship
what year was the first general assembly held
1973
how many original churches and members
40,000 and over 250 churches
who is was the first moderator of GA
jack williamson
who ws the first clerk of GA
morton smith
who was fosdick
liberal baptist preach that sermon in 1922
where was first presbytery
briarwood presbytery birmingham alabama
goals of fellowship of st james
reunificitno with northern church world council and national council of churches
mission statement
obed great commision true to the scriptures true to the reformed faith
distinctives of pca (see BCO)
God alone is lord of the conscience representation rules for membership rules for government rules for officer nomination civil vs. ecclesiastical (ministerial vs. civil power) officers are to exercise church disciple "godliness if founded on truth" (doctrine leads to morals) mutual forebearance
what was the journal
putting a published list of the concerns (led by laity)
concerned presbyterians
putting a published list of the concerns (led by laity)
goal of presyb evange fellowship
healthy alt to missions arm
goal of presby church united
rallies, informing membesr in the pews
why is communion more than a memorialism
john 6 my flesh is food indeed and my blood is drink indeed 1 cor 10 participation in the body and blood mt 26 this is my body
what is a sacrament
outward marking of an inward reality visible words (picture of the gospel) smell and taste the gospel. rom 4, mt 26,28. This do rememberance of me. 1 cor 10 union with christ
what just these two sacraments
baptism mt 28 redemption ordinance lordsupper mt 26
what are the seven catholic sacs
Baptism, Confirmation , Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony."[5]
does anything really happen what is happening in a sacrament
baptism: Acts 22 ananius (washing away your sins) 1 Peter 3 baptism saves you (noah) lords supper: -mt 26 this is the blood of new cov (forgiveness) -john 6 nourishment -1 cor 10 participation - reseal our communion (objectively) -1 cor 10 assurance (which leads to witness 1 cor 11 proclaims the lord's death til he comes) chirst and the benefits of new cov represented - sealed applied
cite the continuity passages
col 2 baptism circumcision acts 2 baptism circumcision luke 22 do this in rememberance of me (at passover) 1 cor 5:7 christ is our passover lamb has been sacrificed
where in scripture are these terms used
rom 4 uses both "sign" and "seal" less explicit connection eph 1
scriptural backing for sprinkling. would you immerse someone?
in OT things were cleanses by the sprinlking of blood (leviticus alter throwing of blood). the lxx use of baptizo in OT when sprinkling or pouring is being done. baptism is picture of baptism of hs , then pouring is best parallel (I will pour out my spirit joel 2; acts 2:17). exek 36
rightly administered
water- 1 pet 3 (noah), mt 2 (jesus own baptism), trinity- mt 28 lawfully ordained (the audience in mt 28 and mt 26; 1 cor 11) keys to the kingdom mt 16 "drink judgment" 1 cor 11
corporate identity
1 cor 10 (one bread one body one lord of all, one cup of blessing we which we bless)
why infants
continuity 2000 years of history corporate entity
what is a covenant blessing?
prayer for peple
what is salvation?
ordo saludis
how is fencing practiced?
two ways -open and closed- 1 cor 11
biblically defend real presence
is this just against reason?
discuss muratorian canon
The Muratorian fragment is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of the books of the New Testament. The fragment is a seventh-century Latin manuscript bound in an eighth or seventh century codex that came from the library of Columban's monastery at Bobbio; it contains internal cues which suggest that it is a translation from a Greek original written about 170 or as late as the fourth century. The copy "was made by an illiterate and careless scribe, and is full of blunders" (Henry Wace[1]). The poor Latin and the state that the original manuscript was in have made it difficult to translate. The fragment, of which the beginning is missing and which ends abruptly, is the remaining section of a list of all the works that were accepted as canonical by the churches known to its anonymous original compiler. It was discovered in the Ambrosian Library in Milan by Father Ludovico Antonio Muratori (1672 – 1750), the most famous Italian historian of his generation, and published in 1740.[1]
discuss process of canonization
In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of exactly the same books as what would become the New Testament canon, and he used the phrase "being canonized" (kanonizomena) in regards to them.
The African Synod of Hippo, in 393, approved the New Testament, as it stands today, together with the Septuagint books, a decision that was repeated by Councils of Carthage in 397 and 419. These councils were under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed.
sig of easter letter
In AD 367, Athanasius of Alexandria authored the 39th Festal Letter, or Easter letter. In it, he listed the same 27 books of the New Testament that are in use today. The same letter defines a 22-book Old Testament. The epistle to the Hebrews is missing from some later lists, but the canon defined dogmatically at the Council of Trent matches Athanasius's list and includes the epistle. The New Testament writings founded in the Codex Vaticanus (A.D.340) and Athanasius' 39th Festal Letter were the first compilations of the present list of Roman Catholic New Testament writings which were officially determined at the Council of Rome (A.D. 382), under Pope Damasus. This determination was then confirmed by the Third Council of Carthage (A.D. 397). [1]
Lex Rex
1644 Samuel Rutherford In reply to the divine right of king, supports rights of people
Medulla Theologica
Early 1600s William Ames reply to Arminianism, theology textbook
Institutes of Christian Religion
1536/1559/1560 Calvin
Bondage of the Will
1525 Luther reply to Erasmus/Semi-Pelagianism
95 Theses
1517 Luther
Der Romerbrief
1922 Barth Commentary on Romans/break from liberalism/emphasis on transcendence of God
Barmen Declaration
1934 Barth/Bonhoeffer Resistance to Nazism
Analogy of Religion
1736 J. Butler Refutation of deism
Magnalia Christi Americana
1702 Cotton Mather History of churches of New England
Summa Theologica
1265-1274 Aquinas
Cur Deus Homo
1090s Anselm On the incarnation/atonement
Vulgate
5th Jerome Latin Bible
City of God
c413-427 Augustine
Ecclesiastical History
325 Eusebius Church history
Canons of Dort
1618-19 Gomarus TULIP Dutch Calvinist
Heidelberg
1563 Ursinus/Olervianus Form of catechism Dutch Calvinist
39 Articles
1563 Cramner Doctrinal foundation for COE Anglican
Scots Confession
1560 Knox Church of Scotland
Book of Concord
1580 10 different confessions Lutheran
Formula of Concord
1577 Chemnitz and Andreae United Lutherans after death of Luther Lutheran
Augsburg Confession
1530 Luther/Melancthon Summary of faith for Charles V Lutheran
Athanasian Creed
4th/5th Doctrine of Trinity
Belgic Confession
1566 De Bres 37 Articles Dutch
2nd Helvetic Confession
1566 Bullinger
Savoy Declaration
1658 Owen Congregational form of WCF Congregationalist
London Baptist Confession of Faith
1689
Nicea
325 Arius condemned/Homousious
Synod of Orange
529 Upholds Augustinian view that grace has primacy in salvation contra Semi-Pelagianism
Edict of Milan
313 Ended Persecution of Christians
Synod of Dort
1618-19 Arminians condemned
Supremacy Act
1534 England's Break from Rome
Marbug Colloquy
1529 Attempt to unite German and Swiss Reformers Failed because of consubstantiation
Council of Trent
1545-1563
Diet of Worms
1521 Luther refuses to recant
Vatican II
1962-5 Liturgical, theogolical development in Catholic church
Auburn Affirmation
1924 Denied need for ministers to affirm "fundamentals"
Barmen Declaration
1934 Opposed Nazis
Vatican I
1869 Papal infallibility
Great Awakening
1725-1760 Series of revivals spurred by Edwards and Whitefield
2nd Great Awakening
1790-1840 Revivals spurred by Finney
Babylonian Captivity
1348 Pope "exiled" to Avignon
Westminster Assembly
1643-1652
First Crusade
1095-99
Solemn League and Covenant
1643 Religious agreement b/w Scotland and England
Great Schism
1054 Split b/w Eastern and Western church
Council of Nicea II
787 Iconoclast
Constantinople
381 Nicea reaffirmed, divinity of HS, Apollinarius condemned
Ephesus
431 Condemnation of Nestorius
Chacledon
451 Condemnation of Eutyches 2 natures one person
Blaise Pascal
17th Italian Janist
Moses Amyrault
17th French Calvinist
Samuel Rutherford
17th Scot Lex Rex
William Laud
17th Anglican Persecution of Puritans, imposed liturgy in Scotland
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633 to 1645. One of the High Church Caroline divines, he opposed radical forms of Puritanism. This and his support for King Charles I resulted in his beheading in the midst of the English Civil War.
William Ames
16-17th English Puritan Morrow of Theology
Francis Gomar
17th Opposed Arminius Calvinist
Francis Turretin
17th Italian Scholastic
Andrew Melville
16th-17th
John Knox
16th Scot Book of Confessions
Robert Bellarmine
16-17th Italian Jesuit Argued against protestants
Lilo & Fausto Sozzini
16th Italian Socinianism Questioned divinity of Christ/Rationality
Theodore Beza
16th French Calvinist Successor to Calvin/Huguenot movement
Loyola Ignatius
16th Spanish Catholic Founded Jesuits, Wrote Spiritual Exercises
John Calvin
16th French Reformer
Ulrich Zwingli
16th Swiss Reformer in Zurich/67 Articles
Menno Simons
16th Dutch Anabaptist "Founded" mennonites. Pacifism, etc.
William Tyndale
16th English Early Reformer/Translated bible in English/Killed by Thomas More
Erasmus
15-16th Dutch Catholic humanist "The Praise of Folly" (excesses of monks)/"On Free Will"
Martin Chemnitz
16th German Lutheran Author of Formula of Concord/scholasticism
Philip Melanchthon
16th German Lutheran Successor of Luther/Marburg Colloquy/author of Augsburg Confession
John Tetzel
15-16th German Catholic (Dominican) Seen as proponent of clergy abuses
Thomas Muntzer
16th German Anabaptist Peasant's War
Martin Luther
16th German Lutheran 95 Theses/Bondage of the Will
Thomas Cartwright
16th English Puritan Opposed Elizabeth I
Charles Fuller
20th American Baptist Founded Fuller Sem
Bishop Usher
17th Irish Anglican Genealogies
Shaeffer
20th American Presbyterian L'Abri
Lewis Sperry Chafer
20th American Congregational Founded DTS
Albert Schweitzer
20th German Lutheran Quest for the Historal Jesus/Eschatalogical Jesus
C. S. Lewis
20th English Anglican Narnia/Mere Christianity, etc.
Harry Emerson Fosdick
20th American Presbyterian Pushed for Liberalism/opposed fundamentalism
Karl Rahner
20th German Catholic most important RC theologian in 20th cent. "Foundations of the Christian Faith" - involved in Vat II
Reinhold Niebur
20th American German Evangelical "Social Gospel" opposed capitalistic excess, KKK
Rudolph Bultmann
20th German Lutheran demyth NT/Father of Form Criticism/separated history and faith
Karl Barth
20th German Swiss Reformed Opposed Hitler/most important 20th Protestant theologian/Church Dogmatics/Der Römerbrief
Cornelius Van Til
20th American Presbyterian Helped establish WTS/Apologetics/Presuppostionalism
J. Gresham Machen
20th American Presbyterian "Christianity and Liberalism"/Started WTS, OPC
Charles Augustus Briggs
19th/20th American (UVA grad) Presbyterian Hebrew Scholar/BDB/Taught at Union Seminary/Was suspended by Pres Church for Heresy (Liberal views on innerancy) and became Episcopal
BB Warfield
19th/20th American Presbyterian Principal of Princeton Seminary/defended innerrancy/prolific writer/advocated cessationism
William Ellery Channing
19th American Unitarian Defined "Unitarian Christianity" (liberal movement w/in congregationalism)
John Henry Newman
19th English Anglican convert to RC Part of "Oxford Movement" (high church movement w/in Anglicanism)/worked to united COE with RC/Became RC Cardinal
Charles Haddon Spurgeon
19th English (Reformed) Baptist Metropolitan Tab Preacher in London/Taught Calvinism/"Prince of Preachers"
Abraham Kuyper
19th/20th Dutch Calvinist/Dutch Reformed Developed "Neo-Calvinism"/Christ as Lord of Culture/Prime Minister
Albrecht Ritschl
19th German German Evangelical Denies justice and wrath, subst atonement/deconstructed authorship of synoptics
Friedrich Schleiermacher
18th/19th German Reformed Rejected historic Christianity, father of modern liberalism (opposed later by Barth).
Charles Hodge
19th American Presbyterian Principal of Princeton (before Warfield)/Defended Calvinism, Inerrancy/Wrote Systematic Theology
James Thornwell
19th American Presbyterian (Southern) Purges S. Carolina College of liberalism/Promoted "spirituality of church" (i.e. opposed Christian abolitionists)/Founder of Southern Presby Church/Debated Hodge
Robert Dabney
19th American Presbyterian Defended Calvinism/Fought w/Jackson/Taught at Union
Thomas Chalmers
19th Scot Presbyterian 1st moderator of Free Church of Scotland/deep concern for social issues/
William Carey
18th/19th English Anglican, then Baptist Baptist Missionary Society/Missionary in India/24 bible translations
Archibald Alexander
18th/19th American Presbyterian 1st Prof at Princeton/served as Principal of Princeton
William Tennent Sr.
18th Scot Presbyterian Formed the Log College in America (forerunner to Princeton)
Matthew Tindal
17th/18th English Deist Famous deist, following Locke
John Wesley
18th English Anglican, then Methodist Founded Methodism/one of the first field preachers/Arminian/Holy Club at Oxford/Friend with Whitfield
George Whitefield
18th English Calvinist contemporary of Wesley/Greatest Preacher?/First great awakening/
Jonathan Edwards
18th American Congregationalist (Calvinist) Key role in great awakening/mission to the indians/President of Princeton briefly/Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
Roger Williams
17th American Baptist Helped found Rhode Island/tolerance for religious diversity
Oliver Cromwell
17th English Puritan Military leader of anti-Royalist forces/Lord Protector of England
John Bunyan
17th English Puritan Pilgrim's Progress/Grace Abounding.../Imprisioned for preaching
John Huss
15th Bohemia (Czech) Reformer of Catholic Church
John Wycliffe
14th/15th English Pre-reformer denied Transubstantiation/wanted bible in vulgar tongue.
Thomas Bradwardine
14th English Anglican Archbishop of Cantebury/emphasis on Salvation by Grace/Cause of God against the Pelagians
Thomas Aquinas
13th Italian Catholic Summa/reintroduces Aristotle to church/arguments for God
Peter Lombard
12th Italian Catholic Important forerunner of scholasticism/"Book of Sentences"
Peter Abelard
11th/12th French Catholic Castrated/Scholastic/"Yes and No"/Moral influence theory
Anselm
11th Italian Catholic Ontological argument for god/Cur Deus Homo/satisfactionary theory of atonement
Columba
6th Irish Catholic Missionary to Scotland/Monastery at Iona
Benedict
5th/6th Italian Catholic Benedict's "Rule"/Monastic order/order and discipline
Athanasius
4th Alexanderian Greek Father On the Incarnation/Black Dwarf/Opposed Arian/39th Festal Leter (set canon)
Jerome
4th/5th Croatian Latin Father Vulgate/monastary in Israel
Ambrose
4th Bishop of Milan (Frank) Latin Father Opposed Arian/Helped convert Augustine/liturgist
Blaise Pascal
17th Italian Janist
Moses Amyrault
17th French Calvinist (4 Point Calvinist) Christ death for all, but effectual for elect.
Samuel Rutherford
17th Scot Lex Rex
William Laud
17th Anglican Persecution of Puritans, imposed liturgy in Scotland
William Ames
16-17th English Puritan Morrow of Theology
Francis Gomar
17th Opposed Arminius Calvinist
Francis Turretin
17th Italian Scholastic
Andrew Melville
16th-17th
John Knox
16th Scot Book of Confessions
Robert Bellarmine
16-17th Italian Jesuit Argued against protestants
Lilo & Fausto Sozzini
16th Italian Socinianism Questioned divinity of Christ/Rationality
Theodore Beza
16th French Calvinist Successor to Calvin/Huguenot movement
Loyola Ignatius
16th Spanish Catholic Founded Jesuits, Wrote Spiritual Exercises
John Calvin
16th French Reformer
Ulrich Zwingli
16th Swiss Reformer in Zurich/67 Articles
Menno Simons
16th Dutch Anabaptist "Founded" mennonites. Pacifism, etc.
William Tyndale
16th English Early Reformer/Translated bible in English/Killed by Thomas More
Erasmus
15-16th Dutch Catholic humanist "The Praise of Folly" (excesses of monks)/"On Free Will"
Martin Chemnitz
16th German Lutheran Author of Formula of Concord/scholasticism
Philip Melanchthon
16th German Lutheran Successor of Luther/Marburg Colloquy/author of Augsburg Confession
John Tetzel
15-16th German Catholic (Dominican) Seen as proponent of clergy abuses
Thomas Muntzer
16th German Anabaptist Peasant's War
Martin Luther
16th German Lutheran 95 Theses/Bondage of the Will
Thomas Cartwright
16th English Puritan Opposed Elizabeth I
Charles Fuller
20th American Baptist Founded Fuller Sem
Bishop Usher
17th Irish Anglican Genealogies
Shaeffer
20th American Presbyterian L'Abri
Lewis Sperry Chafer
20th American Congregational Founded DTS
Albert Schweitzer
20th German Lutheran Quest for the Historal Jesus/Eschatalogical Jesus
C. S. Lewis
20th English Anglican Narnia/Mere Christianity, etc.
Harry Emerson Fosdick
20th American Presbyterian Pushed for Liberalism/opposed fundamentalism
Karl Rahner
20th German Catholic most important RC theologian in 20th cent. "Foundations of the Christian Faith" - involved in Vat II
Reinhold Niebur
20th American German Evangelical "Social Gospel" opposed capitalistic excess, KKK
Rudolph Bultmann
20th German Lutheran demyth NT/Father of Form Criticism/separated history and faith
Karl Barth
20th German Swiss Reformed Opposed Hitler/most important 20th Protestant theologian/Church Dogmatics/Der Römerbrief
Cornelius Van Til
20th American Presbyterian Helped establish WTS/Apologetics/Presuppostionalism
J. Gresham Machen
20th American Presbyterian "Christianity and Liberalism"/Started WTS, OPC
Charles Augustus Briggs
19th/20th American (UVA grad) Presbyterian Hebrew Scholar/BDB/Taught at Union Seminary/Was suspended by Pres Church for Heresy (Liberal views on innerancy) and became Episcopal
BB Warfield
19th/20th American Presbyterian Principal of Princeton Seminary/defended innerrancy/prolific writer/advocated cessationism
William Ellery Channing
19th American Unitarian Defined "Unitarian Christianity" (liberal movement w/in congregationalism)
John Henry Newman
19th English Anglican convert to RC Part of "Oxford Movement" (high church movement w/in Anglicanism)/worked to united COE with RC/Became RC Cardinal
Charles Haddon Spurgeon
19th English (Reformed) Baptist Metropolitan Tab Preacher in London/Taught Calvinism/"Prince of Preachers"
Abraham Kuyper
19th/20th Dutch Calvinist/Dutch Reformed Developed "Neo-Calvinism"/Christ as Lord of Culture/Prime Minister
Albrecht Ritschl
Albrecht Ritschl (March 25, 1822 - March 20, 1889) was a German theologian.

Starting in 1852, Ritschl lectured on "Systematic Theology." According to this system, faith was understood to be irreducible to other experiences, beyond the scope of reason. Faith, he said, came not from facts but from value judgments. Jesus' divinity, he argued, was best understood as expressing "revelational-value" of Christ for the community that trusts him as God. He held the Christ's message to be committed to a community.
Friedrich Schleiermacher
18th/19th German Reformed Rejected historic Christianity, father of modern liberalism (opposed later by Barth).
Charles Hodge
19th American Presbyterian Principal of Princeton (before Warfield)/Defended Calvinism, Inerrancy/Wrote Systematic Theology
James Thornwell
19th American Presbyterian (Southern) Purges S. Carolina College of liberalism/Promoted "spirituality of church" (i.e. opposed Christian abolitionists)/Founder of Southern Presby Church/Debated Hodge
Robert Dabney
19th American Presbyterian Defended Calvinism/Fought w/Jackson/Taught at Union
Thomas Chalmers
19th Scot Presbyterian 1st moderator of Free Church of Scotland/deep concern for social issues/
William Carey
18th/19th English Anglican, then Baptist Baptist Missionary Society/Missionary in India/24 bible translations
Archibald Alexander
18th/19th American Presbyterian 1st Prof at Princeton/served as Principal of Princeton
William Tennent Sr.
18th Scot Presbyterian Formed the Log College in America (forerunner to Princeton)
Matthew Tindal
17th/18th English Deist Famous deist, following Locke
John Wesley
18th English Anglican, then Methodist Founded Methodism/one of the first field preachers/Arminian/Holy Club at Oxford/Friend with Whitfield
George Whitefield
18th English Calvinist contemporary of Wesley/Greatest Preacher?/First great awakening/
Jonathan Edwards
18th American Congregationalist (Calvinist) Key role in great awakening/mission to the indians/President of Princeton briefly/Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
Roger Williams
17th American Baptist Helped found Rhode Island/tolerance for religious diversity
Oliver Cromwell
17th English Puritan Military leader of anti-Royalist forces/Lord Protector of England
John Bunyan
17th English Puritan Pilgrim's Progress/Grace Abounding.../Imprisioned for preaching
John Huss
15th Bohemia (Czech) Reformer of Catholic Church
John Wycliffe
14th/15th English Pre-reformer denied Transubstantiation/wanted bible in vulgar tongue.
Thomas Bradwardine
14th English Anglican Archbishop of Cantebury/emphasis on Salvation by Grace/Cause of God against the Pelagians
Thomas Aquinas
13th Italian Catholic Summa/reintroduces Aristotle to church/arguments for God
Peter Lombard
12th Italian Catholic Important forerunner of scholasticism/"Book of Sentences"
Peter Abelard
11th/12th French Catholic Castrated/Scholastic/"Yes and No"/Moral influence theory
Anselm
11th Italian Catholic Ontological argument for god/Cur Deus Homo/satisfactionary theory of atonement
Columba
6th Irish Catholic Missionary to Scotland/Monastery at Iona
Benedict
5th/6th Italian Catholic Benedict's "Rule"/Monastic order/order and discipline
Athanasius
4th Alexanderian Greek Father On the Incarnation/Black Dwarf/Opposed Arian/39th Festal Leter (set canon)
Jerome
4th/5th Croatian Latin Father Vulgate/monastary in Israel
Ambrose
4th Bishop of Milan (Frank) Latin Father Opposed Arian/Helped convert Augustine/liturgist
Augustine
4th/5th Hippo (Africa) Latin Father Greatest theologian/converted to Xianity/City of God, Confessions
Pelagius
4th/5th English Latin Father Emphasis on human freedom/debated with Augustine/"Defense of the Freedom of the Will"
Chrysostom
4th Antioch (Turkey) Greek Father "Golden-tongue"/exegete of literal school/"On the Priesthood"
Eusebius
3rd/4th Caesarea Greek Father "Church History"/compromise with Arianism/politician
Origen
3rd Egyptian Greek Father Hexapla/Platonic/Commentaries
Cyprian
3rd Africa (Carthage) Latin Father Beheaded by Valerian/influenced by Tertullian
Tertullian
2nd/3rd Roman born in Africa (Carthage) Latin Father 1st Western father of Church/coined "Trinity", early orthodox views of trinity and incarnation/Became Montanist
Polycarp
1st/2nd Smyrna (Turkey) Apostolic Father "He has been faithful to me..."/Knew John/
Justin Martyr
2nd Palestine Apologist School of theology in Rome/Dialogue with Jews
Irenaeus
2nd Smyrna/Gaul Father of Catholic Theology Opposed Gnosticism/taught apostolic succession/"Against Heresies"
Samuel Miller
19th American Presby Book on office of ruling elder/founder of Princeton Sem
William Tenent/John Witherspoon
18th American Presby involved w/log college and Princeton
Cotton Mather
17th-18th American Puritan Involved in Salem Witch Trials/minister, prolific writer/Magnalia Christi Americana
What were the major Issues surrounding the Schism in 1056?
Who was Head of the Church
The dating of Easter
Marriage or no Marriage for Priests
Beards
Who was the first pope?
Leo the Great
Athenasius contru mundum
Athenasius against the world
What are the 4 Major councils? Who was involved and what was decided?
COUNCIL OF NICEA
Date: 325
Action:The Son is of the “same substance,” homo-ousion, as the Father, not a "like substance"
People: Arius, Athanasius, Alexander, bishop of Alexandria and Eusebius.
Heretic: Arius

COUNCIL OF CONSTANTINOPLE I
Year: 381
Action: This council condemned the heresy of Macedonius by clearly defining the divinity of the Holy Ghost also confirmed Creed developed in Nicea and also condemned Apollonairanism.
People: Gregory of Nazianzus and Greg of Nyssa
Heretic: Macedonius and Apollonairanism.

COUNCIL AT EPHESUS
Date: 431
Action: this council condemned the heresy of Nestorius by clearly defining there are two natures in Christ (Divine and Human), but only one Person (Divine). Nestorius was deposed as bishop of Constantinople. This council also briefly affirmed the condemnation of the Pelagians
Heretic: Nestorius

COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON
Year: 451
Action: condemned the heresy of the Abbot Eutyches, MONOPHYSITISM, which claimed that there existed only “one nature” (the divine) in Christ from the Incarnation onward. They affirmed Christ's two natures are unmixed, unchanged, undivided and inseparable.
Heretics: Eutyches — Monophysites
DOCETISM
Jesus body was only an illusion.
ARIANISM (ARIUS)
Christ is not eternal son of God. (There was a time when Jesus was not)
NESTORIUS
Christ is 2 persons (human & divine)
APOLLINARIUS
Christ lacked a humane (reasonable) soul.
EUTYCHES
Christ had 1 nature, half human half divine.
GNOSTICS
Have "secret knowledge"
Matter is evil, but spirit is good.
Marcion
Thought God of the OT was evil and God of NT is Good. So there are two different Gods.
Manarchism
A Trinitiarian error which denies the personal distinctiveness of the Father, Son and Spirit, either by denying Christ’s full deity or by teaching that the Father, the Son, and the Spirit are the same person in different “modes.”
What is the Renissance?
It is a re-birth of learning
Erasmus was a
Humanist
Guttenberg Press
1440
What was luther trying to do with nailing his 95 theses to the door?
He was asking for a debate over selling of indulgences, addressing salvation and abusses.
Who is William Farrel
He brought Calvin to Geneva to set up a state church. The council and Calvin differed in the exercise of discipline. Calvin was exiled to Strausburg (momentarily) where he met up with bucer.
Servutus
A heretic whom Calvin wanted to show mercy too.
John Knox
- Exiled to Geneva where he sat under calvin. He then created teh first bible with study notes (the Geneva Bible)
What is the difference between the puritans and Separatist?
Puritans wanted to purify the church
Separatist wanted to separate from the church (Pilgrims)
Danger in Neo-Orthodoxy.
- Naturalistic presuppositions. Losing grip on supernatural. Trying to compromise.
Neo-Evangelicalism
(More conservative than Neo-orthodoxy, Billy Graham)
Anglican =
Church of England ~ Episcopal is American version
39 articles in book of common prayer.
What is the difference between revivalism and revival?
- Revivalism ~ Emotionalism, right music, etc. Man Center.
- Revival ~ True Holy Spirit conversion
Famous quote from Tertullian about Jerusalem.
“What does Athens have to do with Jerusalem”
5 Major Councils
Council of Nicea, 325 AD
< Arian Christology condemned
< Athanasius was victor.

Council of Constantinople, 381 AD
< Apollinarian Christology condemned
< Cappadocias victorious

Council of Ephesus, 431 AD
< Nestorian Christology condemned

Council of Ephesus, 449 AD
< The “robber’s synod”

Council of Chalcedon, 451 AD
< Eutychian Christology condemned
Name the early Apostolic Fathers
(Apostolic and Patristic Periods)
Clement of Rome (100 AD)
Ignatius of Antioch (110 AD)
Polycarp of Smyrna (155 AD)
Irenaeus of Lyons (202 AD)
Tertullian (225)
Clement of Alexandria (254 AD)
Cyprian of Carthage (258)
Origen of Alexandria (373)
Ambrose of Milan (387)
John Chrysostom (407)
Jerome of Stridonium (420)
Augustine of Hippo (430)
Gregory the Great (604)
Division of Eras Church History
31-100 AD Apostolic Period
100-500 AD Patristic Peried
500-1500 AD Medieval Period & Renissance
1500-1640 AD Reformation & Post Reformation Period
1650-1950 AD Modern Period
1950-present Postmodern Period
Famous theologians during Medieval Times (500-1500)
John Wycliff, John Hus, Gregory the Great, Anselm, bernard of Clairvaux, Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham, Peter Abelard
Gregory the Great
Gregory the Great (540-604)
• Gregory is the Pope whose papacy is generally considered the beginning of the medieval period
• Is ranked with Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine as one of the four great leaders of the Latin church
• He increased the authority and power of the papacy
• Believed the Roman pope was Peter’s sole successor and was the supreme head over the universal church
• Asserted political authority for the papacy
• Had a deep pastoral and evangelistic concern
Anselm
Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)
Archbishop of Canterbury, was one of the greatest of all the medieval theologians
• “Father of Scholastic Theology”
• Gave first serious attempt to give a rationale for the atonement
• Held to satisfaction theory of the atonement
• Tried to establish the being of God on purely rationalistic grounds with his ontological argument
• Encouraged Marian piety but opposed immaculate conception
• Known for statement, “Faith seeking understanding”
Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
Importance
• Wrote mystical, theological and devotional works
• Was the official preacher of the 2nd crusade
• Helped heal papal schism of 1130
• Known as “the hammer of heretics”
• Wrote hymns
Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas (1225-74)
Major work
• Summa Theologica (systematic presentation of Christian doctrine)
• Summa contra Gentiles
Importance
• Most important theologian of the Medieval era
• Said there were five proofs for God’s existence (including cosmological and teleological arguments)
• Brought Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity
• Argued for a close connection between faith and reason; nature reveals much about God’s existence and attributes (matters such as Trinity, though, must be revealed through special revelation)
William of Ockham
(1280-1349)
Major work
• Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Abelard
Importance
• Medieval English theologian
• Held to nominalism
• Famous for "Ockham’s Razor" in which he claims that hypotheses should not be multiplied endlessly. Thus, the simplest solution for a matter is better than complicated ones.
• Had conflict with Pope John XXII
• Believed in priority of divine will over divine intellect
• Contributed to discussions of divine omnipotence
• Influenced by Duns Scotus
• Died of Black Death
Peter of Abelard
Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Importance
• Philosopher, theologian, and teacher
• Pioneer of medieval scholasticism
• Held to moral influence theory of the atonement
• Held to moderate realism—universals are concepts in the mind that have an objective Reality derived from a process of mental abstraction
• Said reason plays as large a role as revelation and tradition in determining truth
• Known for his tragic love affair with Heloise
John Wycliff
John Wycliff (1330-84)
Major works
• Summa de Ente (vindicated realism against nominalism)
• Translation of the Vulgate into English
Importance
• Was known as the Morning Star of the Reformation because of his writings against transubstantiation and the pope
• Denied efficacy of the mass as well as rituals and ceremonies
• Saw church as predestined body of believers
• Said salvation is by grace
• Known as the author or inspirer of the first complete translation of the Bible into English
• Known as Evening Star of scholasticism.
• Was the last of the Oxford scholastics
• Hus adopted his teachings
John Huss
John Hus (1372-1415)
Importance
• Early Czech reformer
• Attacked clerical abuses and immorality in the church
• Excommunicated by Pope Alexander V in 1410
• Held a blend of Protestant and Roman Catholic doctrines—argued against veneration of pope but accepted Purgatory; held to view similar to consubstantiation
• Stressed preaching and a pure life
• Was also a Bible translator
• Was influenced by Wycliff’s ideas
Clement of Rome
Clement of Rome (first century)

Major work

• Epistle to the Corinthians (c. 95)

Importance

• Bishop of church at Rome

• Wrote a letter to Corinth in the style of Paul; wrote against schism and revolt and called on the church to live a righteous life in the style of Old Testament characters

• A possible companion of Peter and Paul
Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch (35-107)

Major works:

• Seven letters before his death in Rome

Importance

• Bishop of church at Antioch

• Personal disciple of one or more apostles

• Advocate of divinity of Christ and the incarnation (refuted docetism)

• Urged Christians not to try to escape martyrdom by fleeing from Rome

• First to use phrase, “Catholic Church”
Marcion
Marcion (d. 160)

Major works

• heretical canon

• Antitheses

Importance:

• Heretical teacher who founded his own church; incorporated Gnostic elements into his beliefs—said God of Old Testament was different than the Father of Jesus

• Came up with his own canon; accepted only Luke and the writings of Paul for his New Testament canon

• Rejection of Marcion’s views led to the formulation of the orthodox canon
Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr (100-165)

Major works

• First Apology

• Second Apology

• Dialogue with Trypho

Importance

• Greatest of the Apologists

• Wrote more concerning Christianity than any before him

• First church father to explicitly identify the church as “Israel”

• Related the Gospel to Greek philosophy

• Emphasized on logos in each person that enlightens every man

• Wrote about baptism as “regeneration” and mentioned the Eucharist

• Martyred in Rome in 165
Irenaeus
Irenaeus of Lyons (130-200)

Major work

• Against Heresies (defense of Christian view of salvation and role of apostolic tradition)

Importance

• Bishop of church at Lyons (modern-day France)

• Considered the first great systematic theologian

• Held to the doctrine of recapitulation—the atonement view that Christ retraced the steps of Adam and succeeded where Adam failed

• Defended the faith against the Gnostics

• As a boy heard Polycarp teach

• Says Matthew wrote a Hebrew Gospel

• Tells of an incident between the apostle John and the heretic Cerinthus
Tertullian
Tertullian (160-225)

Major works

• Apology (defends Christians from false charges)

• Against Praxeas (Jesus had two natures in one person)

Importance

• Fiery Christian writer in Carthage, North Africa

• Father of Latin theology

• Laid foundation for doctrine of Trinity

• Defended unity of Old Testament and New Testament against Marcion

• Wrote works against heretics and exhortations to other Christians

• Wrote many apologies

• Rejected Greek philosophical thought

• Around 200 came under the influence of a Montanist sect
Cyprian
Cyprian (d. 258)

Major work

• On the Unity of the Church

Importance

• Bishop of the church in Carthage during period of fierce persecution

• The second most important Latin-speaking leader of the church after Tertullian

• Important and influential in the area of ecclesiology; his views shaped the church’s ecclesiology through Augustine and the Middle Ages

• Argued that the unity of church was Episcopal not theological

• Condemned Novatian schism

• Famous statements: “He is not a Christian who is not in Christ’s church”; “He cannot have God for his father who has not the church for his mother”; “There is no salvation outside the church.”

• Important to development of the Mass

• Was martyred in 258
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria (150-215)

Major works

• Protreptikos

• Paedagogos

• Stromata

• Hypotyposes

Importance

• Christian teacher at Alexandria, Egypt

• First significant representative of Alexandrian theological tradition

• Positive approach to philosophy which he saw as a “handmaiden” to theology

• Idea of Logos dominated his thinking

• Origen was one of his pupils
Origen
Origen (185-254)

Major works

• On First Principles

• Against Celsus (apologetic)

• Fundamental Doctrines (Christian theology)

• Hexapla

Importance

• “Father of Christian theology” and best Christian scholar of his time

• Most prolific writer of pre-Nicene church (2,000 works)

• Wrote doctrinal and apologetical works as well as commentaries

• Known for unsound theological speculation and allegorizing

• Taught a lesser divinity of the Son (Christology hierarchal, not well worked through)

• Believed every creature would be saved (apocatastasis)

• Was a pupil of Clement of Alexandria

• Controversy with bishop in Alexandria led to his dismissal from church in Alexandria

• Spent last years in Caesarea

• Tortured during Decian persecution

• Took Matthew 19:12 literally and became a eunuch for the kingdom of God; was an ascetic

• Died at Tyre in 254
Arius
Arius


20 Nov 2004

Arius (250-336)

Importance

• Presbyter of church at Alexandria who taught that Jesus was of a different nature/substance (homoiousios) than the father. He also said Jesus was created out of nothing. Thus, “there was a time when he [Jesus] was not.”

• His primary foe was Athanasius

• His views were condemned at the Council of Nicea (325) but his views continued on.

• Modern day Jehovah’s Witnesses have adopted views of Christ that are similar to those of Arius.
Athanasius
Athanasius (296-373)

Major works

• Contra Gentiles;

• De incarnatione (argued that God assumed human nature in Christ)

Importance

• Bishop of Alexandria from 328-73 whose name became synonymous with Nicene orthodoxy

• Defended deity of Christ and monotheism

• Strong foe of Arianism

• Brought about condemnation of Arianism at Council of Nicea (325)

• Said Christ must be divine to save mankind

• Argued for deity of Holy Spirit

• Said if Christ was not divine then Christians were involved with idolatry

• Exiled five times as a determined fighter for orthodoxy
Eusebius
20 Nov 2004

Eusebius (270-340)

Major work

• Ecclesiastical History (principle source for history of church from first century until Constantine)

Importance

• Bishop of church in Caesarea during Emperor Constantine’s reign

• Had a close relationship with Constantine

• Related Constantine’s reign to the messianic kingdom
Basil of Caesarea
Basil of Caesarea (330-79)

Major works

• The Rule of St. Basil

• De Spiritu Sancto

• Adversus Eunomium

Importance

• One of the Cappadocian Fathers along with Gregory of Nazianzus and brother Gregory of Nyssa

• Defended orthodox doctrine of the Trinity; He fixed the formula “one substance and three persons”;

• Defended deity of the Holy Spirit

• Attacked the Arian heresy

• Introduced the idea of communal monasticism; founded a small monastic community in 358
Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus (329-89)

Major work

• Theological Orations

Importance

• One of the Cappadocian Fathers

• Helped clarify Trinitarian and Christological doctrines

• His sermons were instrumental in defeating Arianism and establishing the Nicene confession of Christ’s full deity as orthodox

• During Council of Constantinople (381) he was elected bishop of Constantinople

• Held that the incarnation was necessary for salvation to occur
John chrysostom
John Chrysostom (347-407)

Importance

• Known for his preaching, scholarship and piety

• Known as “the golden-mouthed”

• Used literal and grammatical exegesis of Scripture
Theodore of Mopsuestia
Theodore of Mopsuestia (4th cent.)

Major works

• On the Incarnation

• What is the Difference between Theory and Allegory

Importance

• Greatest interpreter of the Antiochene school

• Argued for interpretation of Scripture that stresses a single consistent historical or literal meaning

• Argued that the Logos assumed a specific human being and not just ‘human nature’ in general

• Denied the canonicity of several Bible books
Augustine
ugustine (354-430)

Major works

• City of God

• On Christian Doctrine

• On the Trinity (self-proclaimed most important work)

• Confessions

Importance

• Antiquity’s greatest theologian and most important church theologian until the Reformation

• Father of orthodox theology

• Developed theology as an academic discipline

• Council of Carthage decided for Augustine’s views on grace and sin and condemned Pelagianism

• Saved when he heard a child say, “Tolle lege” (“take up and read”)

• He adopted an amillennial view when Ambrose taught him it was okay to allegorize the OT

Theological/Doctrinal Views

Trinity

• Held to the eternal subordination of the Son

• Distinctions within the Trinity are primarily relational

• Viewed the Holy Spirit as the bond of love

Soteriology

• Augustine is first father to seriously address soteriology; discussed areas such as predestination, original sin, and free will

• Man’s election is based upon God’s eternal decree of predestination

• Faith itself is a gift of God

• Avoids extremes of Manicheans and Pelagains—both grace and free will are to be affirmed

• Changed views on free will–from free will to free will held captive

• Free will is not lost but incapacitated and can be healed by grace

• The free will of the individual before salvation is only capable of evil—only after regeneration (operative grace) is free will capable of responding positively to God with the aid of continuing grace (co-operative grace)

• God’s prevenient grace prepares man’s will for justification

• Grace is intimately connected with the sacrament of baptism (thus no salvation w/o baptism)

• His view of justification underwent significant development

• He says “to justify” means to “make righteous” not “declare righteous” (this became the view of the Roman Catholic Church); thus righteousness is “inherent” and not “imputed”

• Justification is an event and a process

• Righteousness is located within man

• His view of justification is close to the Greek concept of justification

• Merit is important but even this comes from God

• By justification, Augustine comes close to understanding the restoration of the entire universe to its original order

• The motif of the “love of God” dominates his theology of justification

• Faith is adherence to the Word of God

Ecclesiology

• Said failed brethren should be accepted back into fellowship

• Said sacraments are not invalid because of a bad administrator (contra Donatists)

Eschatology

• Known as the father of amillennialism
Nestorius
Nestorius (d. 451)

Importance

• Preferred Christotokos and denounced Theotokos

• Rejected term “hypostatic union”

• Jesus and the Father had a unity of wills not unity of essence

• Thought in terms of a “conjunction” of natures and not a “union”

• Most significant opponent was Cyril of Alexandria

• Nestorious denounced by the Council of Ephesus (431)

• Modern research has found a book by Nestorius known as the Book of Heracleides in which Nestorius explicitly denies the heresy for which he was condemned
Leo the Great
Leo the Great (Leo I) (440-61)

Importance

• Now known as the “pioneer pope”

• Believed in a hierarchical church with everything converging on Rome

• Believed in papal supremacy

• Held to idea of plenitudo potestatis (plentitude of power) for the See of Peter where the pope as heir of Peter, ruled over the whole church

• His teachings on the nature of Christ were adopted as orthodoxy at the Council of Chalcedon (451)

• Persuaded Attila the Hun to stop a raid on Rome
Gregory of Nyssa
20 Nov 2004

Gregory of Nyssa (335-94)

Major work

• Against Eunomius (refutation of Arius)

Importance

• One of the Cappadocian Fathers

• Defended findings of Nicea at Council of Constantinople (381)

• Refuted Arius and Apollinarius

• Held to a clear distinction between the two natures in Christ

• Held to Mary as Theotokos (God-bearer)

• Worked out Basil’s distinction between ousia and hypostasis (individuality of each member of Trinity)

• Adopted some of Origen’s thinking concerning universalism
Ambrose
Ambrose (340-97)

Major works

• De officiis ministrorum (Christian ethics for clergy)

• Thirty-five treatises and ninety-one letters

Importance:

• One of the Doctors of the church

• A foe of Arianism

• Had a large influence on Augustine whom he baptized and instructed

• Taught Augustine that it was legitimate to allegorize the Old Testament
Jerome
Jerome (331-420)

Major work

• Vulgate (Latin Bible)

Importance

• Biblical scholar and translator was the most learned man in the Latin-speaking church in the late fourth century

• Brought best of Greek thinking to Western Christianity

• Gave Latin Christianity its Bible

• Argued for allegorical interpretation of Scripture
pelagius
Pelagius (early 5th cent.)

Importance

• Held that man is not born with original sin

• Man has free will

• Men advance in holiness by merit alone

• Held that God’s grace is giving commandments to men (i.e. the Ten Commandments)

• Views were condemned at Council of Ephesus (431)

• Views opposed to Augustine’s positions

• Lived for a time in England
Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444)

Importance

• Known for his controversies with Nestorius concerning the person of Christ

• Accused Nestorius of heresy because Nestorius insisted that Mary could be called Christotokos but not Theotokos

• He condemned Nestorius at Council of Ephesus (431)

• Saw a “hypostatic union” where humanity and divinity of Christ are viewed as two distinct, inseparable natures
Eutyches
Eutyches (middle of 5th cent.)

Importance

• Known for his views on the doctrine of Christ

• Rejected idea that Christ had two natures. There were two natures before the incarnation, one after (monophysite); Jesus’ deity and humanity were fused into something different, a third substances (hybrid)

• His views rejected by the Council of Chalcedon (451)
Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus (1466?-1536)

Major works

• 1516 edition of the Greek New Testament

• Diatribe on Free Will (1524)

Importance

• Leading Christian humanist of the Reformation

• Advocate of reform through scholarly effort. He was the epitome of Renassiance Humanism.

• Criticized the Pope and the Catholic Church for its corruption but did not advocate leaving the church as Luther would eventually do.

• Encouraged Luther before the Leipzig debate and thereafter began to criticize him. Erasmus disagreed with Luther over the issue of free-will.

• Rejected Plato's concept of the "Philosopher-Kings." According to Erasmus, philosophers would make the worst political leaders.
Ulrich Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)

Major work

• “Ten Theses of Berne” (1528)

Importance

• Third most important early Protestant reformer

• Leader in Zurich

• Held to a memorial view of Lord’s Supper

• Was strongly predestinarian

• Strong commitment to Scriptural authority

• Opposed relics and penance

• Strong view of providence

• Held to inclusivism believing that there were “pious heathen” who were saved.

• Inspired and then opposed Anabaptists

• Was a Catholic priest

• Preached exegetical sermons beginning with Matthew

• Died in battle while serving Zurich troops

• Had organs removed from church services
Thomas Muntzer
Thomas Muntzer (1489-1525)

Major work

• Prague Manifesto

Importance

• German radical reformer, mystic and revolutionary

• Advocated a violent form of apocalypticism

• Joined Peasant’s revolt

• Died after Battle of Frankhausen

• Some say he was the father of the Anabaptists but did not practice adult baptism
Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer (1491-1551)

Major works

• Summary

• Book of Common Prayer

Importance

• Leading figure in the European and English reformation movements

• Held to symbolic view of sacraments

• Said the church is an extension of the incarnation

• Held to two stages of justification

• Said the third notae of the church is church discipline

• John Calvin was his colleague
William Tyndale
William Tyndale (1494-1536)

Importance

• Reformer

• Translator of the Bible; known as the “Father of the English Bible; 90% of his words passed into the King James Version

• Held to double justification by faith and works

• View of Lord’s supper view similar to Zwingli’s memorial view
Melanchthon
Philip Melancthon (1497-1560)

Major works

• Loci Communes (first systematic statement of Luther’s ideas)

• “Visitation Articles”

Importance

• German Reformer, theologian and educator

• Close ties with Luther (went with Luther to Leipzig disputation in 1519)

• Wrote Augsburg Confession (1531)

• His main contribution to Lutheran movement (although still controversial with Lutherans) was that he changed views on the Lord’s Supper. He adopted a real, spiritual presence view that was closer to Calvin’s view

• A fine grammarian and biblical humanist

• Was part of Erasmus’s circle

• Was professor of Univ. of Wittenburg (1518)

• Officiated Luther’s funeral

• Sat in on Trent II

• Some say he weakened Luther’s views
Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger (1504-75)

Major work

• Decades (50 long sermons on Christian doctrine)

Importance

• Major role in Protestant Reformation

• Successor to Zwingli in Zurich

• Became a leader of the Swiss Reformation

• With Calvin helped unite Protestants

• Authored Second Helvetic Confession (1566) that united Calvinistic churches throughout Europe

• Wrote on providence, justification, and the nature and centrality of the Scriptures

• Said the church is composed of all the elect

• Two marks of church—preaching of Word and the two sacraments, Baptism and Lord’s Supper

• Apostolic succession found in preaching and teaching
John Knox
John Knox (1514-72)

Major work

• Helped produce Confession of Faith

Importance

• Scottish reformer who wrote on behalf of Protestantism

• Said Scripture is the sole and sufficient rule of faith and practice

• Justification is through faith alone

• The minister of Gospel is simply a servant and steward

• The people have a voice in electing pastors and office-bearers

• Was ordained as a Catholic priest

• Was in exile on the European continent
Henry VIII
23 Nov 2004

Henry VIII (1491-1547)

Importance

• King of England

• Initiated the Protestant Reformation in England

• Rejected the authority of the pope and the Roman Catholic Church

• Confiscated church lands and promoted religious reformers to power

• Founded Anglican church

• Fell in love with Anne Boleyn
Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal (1623-62)

Major work

• Pensees

Importance

• French mathematician, scientist, philosopher, and religious thinker

• Known for “Pascal’s Wager”–belief in God is a good bet because the consequences of not believing are much greater

• Said it was possible to have reasons for believing something without evidence (moderate fideist view of faith)

• Rejected philosophy’s worth

• Believed original sin explains mystery of man

• Wrote against views of the Jesuits
John Bunyan
ohn Bunyan (1628-88)

Major works

• Pilgrim’s Progress

• The Holy War

Importance

• Known for the classic Pilgrim’s Progress

• Influential Puritan author of 17th century

• Imprisoned for his faith for 12 years
Martin Luther
I. Introducing Martin Luther
A. Martin Luther was born on November 10, 1483 in Eisleben, Germany.
B. He died in Eisleben on February 18, 1546.
E. Martin’s father wanted him to become a lawyer so Martin entered the University of Erfurt.
H. On a summer day in 1505 he was almost killed by a bolt of lightning that knocked him to the ground. He cried out, “Saint Anne, help me! I shall become a monk!” (St. Anne was the patron saint of those who were in distress.) After this, Martin sold his law books and joined an Augustinian monastery in Erfurt.
=
B. He sought relief for his soul in God but became angry with God when he viewed God as mostly wrathful and not loving.
“Though I lived as a monk without reproach, I felt that I was a sinner before God with an extremely disturbed conscience. I could not believe that he was placated by my satisfaction. I did not love, yes, I hated the righteous God who punishes sinners, and secretly . . . I was angry with God” (Luther’s Works, 34, 336-37).
C. Luther was not certain of his own repentance and punished himself often.
D. Luther went to confession often. So much so, that he was instructed to stop going to confession until he really had something worthy of confession. Luther was constantly afraid that he had forgotten some sinful thought or deed.
F. Staupitz sent Luther out of the monastery to the University of Erfurt where he studied philosophy and theology. He also was commissioned to do business for the Augustinian order.
H. In 1511, Luther went to Rome which was a great opportunity to walk around the great capital city of the church. Luther was extremely disappointed by the immorality and blasphemy of the city.
J. Luther earned his doctorate of theology degree in 1512 from the University of Wittenberg.
L. While preparing lectures on the Book of Romans Luther had what is now called his “tower experience.” From 1513–1518 Luther was struggling with the issues of God’s righteousness and mercy, particularly how both could be true at the same time.
M. Luther was struck by the Bible’s teaching that “the righteous shall live by faith.” He believed in “the passive righteousness with which merciful God justifies us by faith.”
“I beat importunately upon Paul. . . . At last, by the mercy of God, meditating day and night, I gave heed to the context of the words, namely, ‘In [the gospel] the righteousness of God is revealed, as it is written, “He who through faith is righteous shall live.’”
N. “Luther’s view of God and salvation was revolutionized by his new interpretation of the righteousness of God and the gospel of justification by grace through faith alone” (Olson, The Story of Christian Theology, 377).
2. He became more Augustinian in his theology.
3. Grace comes through faith, not the sacraments.
4. He gained a new concept of the sovereignty of God including predestination and efficacious grace.

III. The Road to the Reformation
A. In 1517, the indulgence seller, Tetzel, came to a town near Wittenberg. Commissioned by Pope Leo X, he was selling indulgences to raise funds for the rebuilding of Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. His slogan: “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings another soul from purgatory springs!”
B. The selling of indulgences infuriated Luther and was the stimulus for the posting of his 95 Theses on the castle church door in Wittenberg on October 31, 1517.
1. Thesis 82 challenged the pope as to why he lets souls out of purgatory for money. Why not just let all souls out of purgatory? Luther thought.
2. Luther’s 95 Theses included more than just challenges to indulgences including popular beliefs and practices of the church.
3. Luther was only intending an academic debate when he posted his theses.
4. In an effort not to arouse the laity he wrote his theses in Latin.
5. Eventually, the 95 Theses was translated into German. The German people liked it.
C. Luther became a hero to many in Germany but was viewed as a threat to the Roman Catholic Church.

D. On August 7, 1518 Luther received a papal summons. The pope demanded that Luther appear in Rome within sixty days on suspicion of heresy. Luther appealed to his Elector, Frederick the Wise to protect him. This request was granted.


1. From June 27--July 16 1519 the Leipzig Debate occurred with the Roman Catholic scholar, John Eck. Luther asserted the following:
a) The pope is not infallible.
b) The church of Rome was not supreme over other churches.
c) Church councils have erred since they were made of human beings.
d) Scripture was the ultimate divine authority.

F. In 1520, Luther wrote “The Babylonian Captivity of the Church.”
1. This was an attack on the sacramental system of salvation of the Roman Catholic Church.
2. It was a defense of justification by faith.
3. It denies transubstantiation and promoted consubstantiation.

G. The Papal Bull of Condemnation, Exsurge Domine was published on October 10, 1520. Luther was given sixty days to recant. Luther responded by burning Exsurge Domine and other Roman Catholic books.
H. Luther was excommunicated by the pope on January 3, 1521.
I. Luther was summoned to appear before emperor Charles V at his imperial court in the city of Worms in 1521. When ordered by the pope’s representative to repent of his heretical views he declared:
“My conscience is captive to the Word of God. This I cannot and will not recant, for going against my conscience is neither safe nor salutary. I can do no other, here I stand, God help me. Amen.”
J. Luther was declared an outlaw by the emperor but was protected by the prince Frederick “The Wise” of Saxony.
K. Luther’s life was in danger but his supporters secretly had him placed in a castle in Wartburg. He stayed there for a year disguised as “Knight George.”
L. At the Wartburg castle, Luther translated the New Testament into German in eleven weeks. Five thousand copies were sold in two months; Two hundred thousand were sold in twelve years.
M. While absent, Andreas von Karlstadt, a colleague of Luther at Wittenberg, began a reform movement in Wittenberg. Luther viewed Karlstadt as inept and thus returned to Wittenberg.
N. Luther launched a strong attack on Roman Catholicism and the papacy, even referring to the pope as the antichrist.
O. Luther married Catherine von Bora in 1525 when he was forty-two years old. Catherine was a former nun. Affectionately Martin called her “Katie.” They had six children.

IV. Martin Luther’s theology
E. Luther was primarily a biblical theologian. He was a professor of bible, primarily Old Testament exegesis at the University of Wittenberg.
F. “The heart and essence of Luther’s theological contribution . . . was salvation as a free gift of divine mercy for which the human person can do nothing” (Olson, 380).
G. Luther’s theological contributions: The main contributions we will focus on here is Luther’s views on (1) the theology of the cross; (2) knowledge of God; (3) justification; and (4) sacraments.
Thomas Cramner
Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556)

Major work

• Homilies

Importance

• Archbishop of Canterbury

• Told Henry VIII that he need not wait to hear from Rome for the annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine but he could refer the question of the legality of the marriage to university scholars

• Became archbishop of Canterbury in 1533

• He was the highest ecclesiastical authority in England and exercised prerogatives traditionally reserved for the pope

• Pronounced the King of England as head of the church

• Rejected allegiance to the pope

• Tried to unite church of England and the Lutheran church

• Recanted his reformation beliefs and then recanted his recantations
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola


23 Nov 2004

Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)

Major works

• Constitutions

• Spiritual Exercises

Importance

• Founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

• Was a crippled soldier
Menno Simons
Menno Simons (1496-1561)

Major works

• On the Ban

• The Foundation of Christian Doctrine

Importance

• Famous Anabaptist leader

• Known as the founder of the Mennonites

• Rejected transubstantiation

• Held that baptism should follow conversion

• Held to doctrine of peace and nonresistance

• Believed in separation of church and state

• Said Jesus had heavenly flesh that was not from Mary (Melchiorite doctrine of incarnation)

• People are not condemned for original sin

• Did not accept Luther’s forensic doctrine of justification

• Said New Testament took precedence over the Old Testament

• Accepted the apocryphal books as canonical

• Gave detailed instructions about the ban

• Former priest

• Strongly condemned the Munsterites

• Died a natural death at 66 (rare for Anabaptist leaders)
John Calvin
ohn Calvin (1509-64)

Major works

• Institutes of the Christian Religion

• Commentaries

Importance

• Along with Luther, the most important Protestant reformer

• Magesterial Reformer of Geneva

• Father of Reformed and Presbyterian theology

• Great systematizer of theology

• Held to sola scriptura

• Held to historic view of Trinity

• Held to secret predestination (absolute, particular, and double)

• Held to sola fidei

• Held to infant baptism

• Held to spiritual presence view of the Lord’s Supper

• Stressed Christ’s role as mediator

• Believed there were two marks of church—Word preached and sacraments rightly used

• Had Servetus put to death

• His views contrasted with those of Arminius
Jacob Arminius
Jacob Arminius (1560-1609)

Major works

• Commentary on Romans 9

• Declaration of Sentiments

• Examination of Perkins’ Pamphlet

Importance

• Father of Arminianism

• Believed God’s predestination of individuals is based on foreknowledge of whether people believe or reject Christ (conditional predestination)

• Argued against supralapsarianism (did not believe destiny determined before the Fall)

• Believed in human freedom

• Held to unlimited atonement

• His views picked up by Methodists and Holiness groups

• Known as “the quiet Dutchman”
John Owen
John Owen (1616-83)

Major works

• Numerous writings on theology

Importance

• Puritan theologian committed to the congregational way of church government

• Held to major themes of high Calvinism (particular redemption, election), Trinity, Christology, church polity, and pursuit of holiness
Francis Turretin
Francis Turretin (1623-87)

Major work

• Institutio (full expression of Calvinsim)

Importance

• Calvinist theologian

• Proponent of orthodox Calvinism formulated at Synod of Dort (1618-19)

• Institutio became a standard textbook for American Presbyterianism
Hugo Grotius
Hugo Grotius (1583-1645)

Major works

• On the Truth of the Christian Religion

• Concerning the Law of War and Peace

Importance

• Dutch jurist, statesman, theologian, and historian

• “Father of international law”

• A leader of the Arminians

• Held to a governmental view of the atonement

• Wanted unity and restoration with Rome
Jonathan Edwards
Jonathan Edwards (1703-58)

Major works

• “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

• A Treatise on Religious Affections

Importance

• Massachusetts Congregational minister

• Theologian of the first Great Awakening

• Often recognized as greatest evangelical American theologian

• Stressed sovereignty of God

• Promoter of Calvinism

• Wrote about affections

• Was a postmillennialist—believed millennium was ushered in with the Great Awakening

• Believed in a future for national Israel
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Major works

• Critique of Pure Reason (human reason)

• Critique of Practical Reason (ethics)

• Critique of Judgment (aesthetics)

• Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone

Importance

• Most important philosopher of the Enlightenment

• His approach to knowledge combined elements from both rationalism and empiricism; He said all of our knowledge of the outside world comes to us via our senses but the mind also contributes to our knowledge of reality. The mind processes the data

• We do not know reality as it is in itself

• Made a distinction between phenomena and noumena

• Rejected all metaphysical knowledge (Kant bifurcated knowledge and put God in the upper story)

• Rejected all metaphysical arguments for the existence of God, including the ontological, cosmological, and teleological arguments

• Made a distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions

• Applied the “categorical imperative”—“Act only on the maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law” (moral oughtness)

• The notions of God, freedom, and immortality were regulative principles; though indemonstrable they gave coherence to ethical thought and behavior

• Grounded theology in morality instead of morality in theology

• Christianity was a way of teaching ethics for the philosophically unsophisticated

• Jesus was an enlightened moral teacher

• Said Hume awakened him from his dogmatic slumbers

• Held that enlightenment is man’s emergence from immaturity, man may think for himself without relying on some authority such as the Bible, church, or state
Charles Finney
Charles Finney (1792-1875)

Major works

• Lectures on Revival

• Lectures on Systematic Theology

Importance

• Between 1824 and 1832 established the modern forms and methods of revivalism in America

• Taught that results of revival can be produced by human means

• Taught Christian perfection

• Was a professor at Oberlin
Charles Hodge
Charles Hodge (1797-1878)

Major works

• Systematic Theology

• Commentaries on Romans and 1 and 2 Corinthians

Importance

• Most influential American Presbyterian theologian of the 19th century

• Taught at Princeton Seminary

• Linked with Archibald Alexander

• Espoused orthodox Calvinism and attacked deviations from it

• Defended authority of the Bible

• Critical of Charles Finney
BB Warfield
B.B. Warfield (1851-1921)

Major work

• The Lord of Glory

Importance

• Last conservative theologian to defend Calvinistic orthodoxy from the Chair at Princeton

• Expert on Augustine, Calvin, and the Westminster Confession

• Fought liberalism

• Defended inerrancy of Scripture

• Viewed premillennialism and dispensationalism as aberrations
Mathew Tindal
Mathew Tindal (1655-1733)

Major works

• Christianity as Old as the Creation

• The Gospel a Republication of the Religion of Nature (1730) (became the Bible of deism)

Importance

• Famous English Deist

• Criticized alliances between church and state

• Criticized traditional views of the Bible

• Special revelation not needed for the rational person because all rational creatures have a law of nature or reason

• Influenced Voltaire’s religious outlook

• Advocated high-church Anglicanism
John Wesley
John Wesley (1703-91)

Importance

• Founder of Methodism and primary figure in the 18th century Evangelical Revival

• Taught Christian perfectionism

• Taught prevenient grace—grace between conception and conversion

• Was basically Arminian

• Held to two phases of conversion: (1) justification and (2) new birth and the process of sanctification

• Son of Susanna and brother of Charles
Albert Schweitzer
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)

Major work

• The Quest of the Historical Jesus

Importance

• German theologian, medical missionary, and musicologist

• Famous for viewing Jesus as an apocalyptic leader who was wrong about the coming of the kingdom

• Rejected liberal view of Jesus as just a moral teacher

• Said theologians were finding a Jesus who reflected them and their views

• Was a believer in ‘the spirit of Jesus’ and emphasized ethics and discipleship
JG Machen
J.G. Machen (1881-1937)

Major works

• Christianity and Liberalism

• The Virgin Birth of Christ

Importance

• Leading American conservative theologian and NT scholar

• Stood for historic orthodox Christian truth

• With Van Til and Allis, Machen resigned from Princeton Theological Seminary and founded Westminster Seminary in 1929

• His opposition to liberalism caused him to be kicked out of Presbyterian church

• In 1936 he led the establishment of Orthodox Presbyterian Church
Emil Brunner
Emil Brunner (1889-1966)

Major works

• Nature and Grace: A Discussion with Karl Barth

Importance

• Swiss Reformed neo-orthodox and dialectical theologian

• Along with Barth was a pioneer of neo-orthodoxy

• Opposed liberalism

• Unlike Barth, he accepted natural revelation

• Held to a high Christology; accepted Chalcedonian view of Christ

• Said God can only be known through personal encounter

• Denied virgin birth and inerrancy

• Was accused of promoting the doctrine of universalism
Karl Rahner
Karl Rahner (b.1904)

Major work

• Theological Investigations (20 vols.)

Importance

• Roman Catholic theologian

• One of most influential theologians of the 20th century

• Leading thinker behind Vatican II

• Was a transcendental Thomist—said being is discovered not in external objectivity but in the subjectivity of a human knower

• Helped popularize inclusivism

• Believed in universalized saving grace

• Said there are “anonymous Christians”–saved people who have not placed their faith in Christ; held that every human has the ability to hear God, thus there are saved people of different faiths

• This dynamic impulse that orients all people toward the immediacy of God is called the “supernatural existential.”
Clark Pinnock
Clark Pinnock (b. 1937)

Major works

• A Defense of Biblical Infallibility

• The Scripture Principle

Importance

• Major evangelical theologian of last third of 20th century

• Primary evangelical proponent of inclusivism–Christianity is uniquely true but people of other faiths can be saved without explicit belief in Jesus Christ

• Primary evangelical proponent of the Openness of God movement

• Defended biblical authority and infallibility early in his career and then softened his position later in life

• Views election as a corporate matter

• Argues for annihilationism

• Was a strong Calvinist but became Ariminian

• Influenced by Schaeffer and lately has been influenced by Barth
Karl Barth
Karl Barth (1886-1968)

Major works

• Der Romerbrief

• Church Dogmatics (when he died in 1968, volume 13 was unfinished)

Importance

• German neoorthodox theologian

• Probably the most influential theologian of the 20th century

• Exposed bankruptcy of liberalism; reacted against liberalism by claiming that God, not man, is the chief actor in salvation

• Stressed God’s absolute transcendence

• Used dialectical theological method

• Held to the deity of Jesus

• Held orthodox view of Trinity

Soteriology

• Viewed salvation as an objective event—Christ objectively wrought salvation for all people by his victory on the cross

• Christ at his coming united the entire human race to himself; with his death the world’s sin was judged and in his resurrection the human race was vindicated

• Justification and sanctification are the outworking of the covenant made in eternity past to bring all men to God

• People contribute nothing to their salvation—faith, repentance, and obedience are manifestations of a finished salvation, not the means of salvation

• All persons are elected to life in Christ; Barth said “The doctrine of election is the sum of the Gospel.”

• In eternity past the Father determined that Jesus would be “elect God” and “elect man”; He is “elect God” in that he is the subject who would elect others; he is “elect man” in that he is the object of God’s election

• Had a novel view of double predestination—on the cross God said “No” to himself as Christ bore the sentence of man’s rejection—at Calvary God said “Yes” to his son and the people in him

• Rejected the traditional covenant of works; instead, through a single covenant of grace God entered into partnership with humankind to reconcile the race to himself

• God’s grace is sovereign and irresistible; those who experience it cannot be lost

• Barth laid the theoretical basis for universalism although he did not explicitly say this believing that committing to it would limit God’s freedom

• Rejected penal theory of atonement, said by his incarnation and death Jesus Christ united humanity with his divine nature

• Rejected natural theology—no grace outside of God’s revelation in Jesus Christ
CS Lewis
C. S. Lewis (1898-1963)

Major works

• Mere Christianity

• The Screwtape Letters

• The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe

Importance

• The best-selling Christian author of all time

• His works are popular in Great Britain and the United States

• Converted from atheism to theism in 1929; became a Christian in 1931
Dietrich Bonhoeffer
Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-45)

Major works

• Letters and Papers from Prison

• Ethik

Importance

• Lutheran pastor and theologian

• Was a pacifist who eventually opposed the Nazis even to point of violence

• Involved with a failed assassination attempt of Hitler

• Executed by the Nazis at age 39

• Worked at Union Theological Seminary in NY for a while

• Argued for a nonreligious interpretation of Christianity (“Religionless Christianity”)
Francis Schaeffer
Francis A. Schaeffer (1912-84)

Major works

• The God Who is There

• He is There and He is Not Silent

• Escape from Reason

Importance

• Founder of L’Abri Fellowship

• Was an influential leader and apologist within evangelicalism

• Thousands of people came to L’Abri in Switzerland from all over the world to get real answers to life

• Emphasized the Lordship of Christ in the totality of life
Billy Graham
Billy Graham (b. 1918)

Importance

• Most influential evangelist of all time

• Founded Christianity Today in 1956

• Had his breakthrough at the 1949 ///Los Angeles Crusade
Shepherd of Hermas
A book of the nT for 300 years. Pastoral letter written to Chrstians in Rome.
Justin
Know dialogue with Trypho (apologetic to a Jew) <jews, emporer, heretics>
o Wrote first apology to the emporer, wrote against Marcine
Montanist
o Montanists ~ (2nd Century) 2 ladies who were prophetests. Spoke of ungoing prophecy. Added scripture.(Tertullian became a follower late in his life)
The different persecutions before the edict of Milan
o Neronian
o Domician
o Trajen
o Decius
o Diaclecian
4 Major councils according to Vogel
o Constantinople (381) upheld Nicean verdict. Opponent was Apollonarius. Diety of Christ absorbed the humanity so that there wasn’t a human soul.
o Talks of Jesus being 2 natures in one person.
o 431 Council Ephesus ~ Dealing with Nestorianism. Overemphasizes humanity. Talks of Mary has mother of God.
o 451 Chalcedan Orthodoxy set in reference of person of Christ. 2 natures in 1 person. Against Eutyces who thinks there is 1 nature. (Best summarized in Nicean Creed. Important is same substance and 2 natures)
o 529 Council of Orange ~ Palageus is clearly a heretic.
Iconoclastic
o Iconoclastic ~ Terring down and destroys icons. The east is destroying the icons. Never see a statue in Eastern orthodox statue, but will see paintings. 2 dimensional image in worship. West allowed for 3d imagery.
Realist
o Realist ~ Thinks of universals (ideas) exist in the mind of God before they existed. When God said chair there was a chair in the mind of God. (Anselm, archbishop of cantebery, know what he wrote and why that is important, cur des homo) First treatment of the atonement. Why fully God and fully man.
o Engages more with rational argument. I know therefore I believe.
o Evidentialism
Nominalist
Universal ideals are just names. An object is only an object until it is created. Whatever we experience we experience through experiences (Occam)
Fedeism
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology). The word fideism comes from fides, the Latin word for faith, and literally means "faith-ism."
Tomist
o (Tomist~ Thomas Aquinas followers.) balances Nominalist and Realist.
Abellard
o Abellard 12th century ~ Yes & No book. Systematic Theology book. Figure out what it talks about. Getting the systematizing of doctrine and setting down the dogmas of the faith.
Peter Lombard
o Peter Lombard ~ Book of Sentences. Most importantly he outlines what becomes accepted at council of trent of 7 sacraments. Know the 7 sacraments.
o Marriage cant be universal (for Christians and non-Christians)
Martin Luther
o Martin Luther ~ Augustinian Monk. Important. Husite. Brethern of the Common Life. Mystics.
o Luther be talking about the “Gospel for me!”
Came Thmas A'Kempis
o Came Thomas a’kepis. ~ Imitation of Christ.
Mystics
o Mystics, deal with the interior of the Christian Life.
Purpose of 95 Theses
• 95 theses attack misuse of the authority of church in granting or twith holding salvation.
o Luthers was opposed to the false promises of salvation more than the selling of indulgences.
o People would avoid mass because they purchased their salvation.
o Why german money to build a palace for italy?
o Wrote the Babylonian captivity (Church had been held captive by rome, critique of Lombard who instituted the 7 sacraments)
• Asked to recant his understandings of justification, critique of pope and of Lombard.
o The right of safe passage was removed from husk because he was deemed a heretic and they remove the right for heretics.
• Magistrate Frederick of Saxony gave Luther protection (from Wittenberg)
• Major Figures at Diet of Worms
o Charles the V. His home was in spain, he was Spanish.
• Luther kidnapped and put at wurtburg in a castle and translated the bible into german.
• Erfurd, Augustinian monastery where he is struggling with justification, God’s punishment of righteousness, etc.
• Luther was in Wittenberg at the university of wittenberg.
Peasants Revolt
Peasants revolt (shows important differences)
o Because of Luther’s teaching against Rome.
o Peasants started to revolt. 1525.
o Luther told princes had the right to kill the peasants revolt.
o If Luther says we don’t need to be under the authority of the Pope than why under a prince.
Calvin kicked out of Geneva
o Calvin was kicked out because he wanted to hold the council accountable for their sinfulness.
o Went from Geneva to Saulsburg (French/german).
o William Farrell.
John Calvin's "Black Spot"
o John Calvin’s Black Spot ~ Burning of Cervitus. Cervitus was a Spanish heritic, had a price on his head. Any one that gave him safe quarter would be killed. When Cervitus said he was coming, Calvin told him not to come and that he would be killed. Cervetus stood up in one of calvins sermons and refutes the trinity. The city council (which Calvin was not a member of) found him as a heretic, Calvin was arguing for a more humain execution. (beheading).
Calvins Institutes
o Calvin’s Institutes were written in a systematic theology to the common man.
o Deals with all the basic categories of who God is and what is required of man.
Radical Reformation
o Radical Reformation ~ First generation of Anabaptist. Bought into much of what Luther was saying, but took it to an individualistic. They were much more of Millenial and wanted to enter into kingdom of Christ. Took over munster, one proclaimed to be Jesus Christ. They were using the sword. Kind of like wild charismatics with the wildness of the holy spirit
o Anabaptist, know views of church and state, separation from the world, etc.
o Reaction was by Mineu Simons.
o Speyer (1520’s) has something to do with Anabaptist and formation of german, colonies. Killed Anabaptist, each germon city choose its own denomination.
English History of the Break from the Catholic church to Persecution of Protestants
o Bloody’s Marys dad was henry the 8th. Married his brothers widow. She didn’t produce sons, so he divorced her to marry again. Pope wont grant him a divorce, so Henry the 8th decides he is head of the church and forms the Church of England (Anglican).
o Henry takes Thomas Cramner as a spiritual advisor. Becomes the 32 articles (the book of common prayer). Reformational. Good stuff. Henry continues to marry and remarries till he has a male air, Edward takes over at age of 17th. He comes under the leadership of Cramner.
o Cathryn’s daughter (the first wifes daughter) is Mary, comes in and realigns England back to rome.
o 1550’s Protestants are persecuted
o When Mary dies in 1558, Elizabeth reigns till 1603.
o Elizabeth adapst the via media (the middle way) solidifies the Anglican way.
o She wants to be protestant. But wants to keep peace with the catholics so that they won’t be invaded.
o Elizabeth was the virgin king. She had no heirs, so they went outside tudors.
o Went up to Scotland to James the 1st.
o Tudors are of the 1500’s
History Surrounding the Westminster Confession of Faith
o Puritans want pure worship in early 1600’s . They are excited about the scotish king, but he does not live up to expectations, so they move to America.
o Charles the 1st.
o 1640-1646 a civil war breaks out. King is captured and beheaded by the parliament.
o Parliament assigns a Lord Protector (Cronwell).
o Westminster confession of faith. The Long parliament.
o Who are the Covenentars? (They also had a high view of subscription to the covenant, who through this kept). Charles 2nd came into power.
o After William of orange conquers james. No Catholic can be on England territory.
Moravians
o Moravians ~ Where did they come from. 1700’s . Zinzendorf. Descendants of Hussites. Bohemian, Chezk republic. Beginning of missionary movement, greatest missions per capita. Great in music and worship, brought Gospel to this country.
o Have influence on Wesley, they start the holiness club to become more holy and develop. Becomes Methodist out of Anglican church.
o John Wesley (his heart was warmed)
o Wesley’s revivals were in England
o Whitfield, in New England.