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32 Cards in this Set

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chromatin
shape of one of the 46 strands of DNA when not in the process of dividing. This is the form it is in most of the time (interphase) and when it is being used for transcription
chromosome
a condensed unit of DNA, held at one point by a centromere. This is the name given in general to one of the 46 of them, which are in 23 pairs in each cell
sister chromatid
one half of a replicated chromosome before anaphase or anaphase II occurs-the 2 halves are attached at this point
daughter chromosome
each half of a chromosome during anaphase or anaphase II-still in the same cell as the other half
centromere
the small area which connects 2 sister chromatids
centrioles
moves to opposite poles during prophase and organizes spindle fibers
spindle fibers
the "track" to which chromosomes attach before dividing
homologous
chromosomes coding for the same information-they are pairs
karyotype
an organized "picture" of chromosomes, lined up by pairs and by height and banding patterns
diploid
normal # of chromosomes, stands for 2 of each kind, or 2 sets, represented by the symbol 2n, in humans it is 46
haploid
only one of each kind of chromosome (half the pair), it is one set of chromosomes, shown by n, in humans it is 23
triploidy
3 entire sets of chromosomes, in humans it is 69
trisomy
3 of one of the chromosomes, the human number is 47
monosomy
1 of one of the chromosomes, the human number is 45
tetrad
4 sister chromatids (joined by synapsis) seen in metaphase I
polar cells
small discarded cells which help to eliminate the excess chromosomes from egg formation (oogenesis)
autosomes
chromosomes whcih are nto involved with teh determination of gender
somatic (body)
cells which are not involved with making sperm or eggs (gametes). Only MEITOSIS
germ
general term for cells which will become the gametes MEIOSIS
telomere
"end" of the chromosome whcih gets shorter each division; prevents "unraveling" of the chromosome
apoptosis
programmed cell death
spermatogenesis
form of meiosis which is the process of making sperm
oogenesis
form of meiosis which is the process of making eggs
gametes
sex cells which are haploids
zygote
union of 2 gametes. It is a diploid
mitosis
dividing of the nucleus and the chromosomes so identical genetic material given to daughter cells
cytokinesis
dividing of the cytoplasm
meiosis
process for making haploid cells
nondisjunction
failure of a chromosome to divide; results in trisomy
farrow
term for the "line" where an animal cell is dividing
cell plate
term for the structure formed where a plant cell is dividing
polyploidy
many sets of chromosomes