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24 Cards in this Set

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A formal definition or summary of the Christian faith, held in common by all Christians. The most important are the "Apostles' Creed" and the "Nicene Creed".
A movement, centering upon Roman north Africa in the fourth century, which developed a rigid view of the church and sacraments
It derives from the Greek word kanon meaning "a rule" or "a fixed reference point". The "canon of Scripture" refers to a limited and defined group of writings, which are accepted as authoritative within the Christian church.
The area of Christian Theology which focuses on the defense of the Christian faith, particularly through rational justification.
The section of Christian theology dealing with the theory of the church.
A major early Christological heresy, which treated Jesus Christ as the supreme of God's creatures, and denied his divine status. The Arian controversy was of major importance during the fourth century.
Scriptural writings accepted to be within the canon.
A adjective used to refer to the first centuries in the history of the church, following the writing of the New Testament (c. 100-451).
An understanding of how humans are able to merit their salvation which is diametrically opposed to that of Augustine of Hippo, placing considerable emphasis upon the role of human works and playing down the idea of divine grace.
God's original or eternal decision to save some, and not others.
The section of Christian theology dealing with the doctrine of salvation.
The distinctively Christian doctrine of God, which reflects the complexity of the Christian experience of God as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The doctrine is usually summarized in maxims such as "three persons, one God."
Cappadocian fathers
A term used to refer collectively to three major Greek-speaking writers of the patristic period: Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzen, and Gregory of Nyssa. "Cappadocia" designates an area in Asia Minor (Turkey). Made a significant contribution to the development of the doctrine of the Trinity.
The section of Christian theology dealing with the identity of Jesus Christ, particularly the question of the relation of his human and divine natures.
Justin Martyr (c.100-c.165)
The greatest of the Apologists. His doctrine of the logos spermatikos ("seed-bearing word") allowed him to affirm that God had prepared the way for his final revelation in Christ through hints of its truth in classical philosophy.
Lying outside the canon of Scripture.
ecumenical council
An assembly of bishops drawn from the entire Christian world, whose decisions are regarded as normative for the churches.
Irenaeus of Lyons (c.130-c.200)
His most significant work, "Against Heresies", represents a major defense of the Christian understanding of salvation, and the role of tradition in remaining faithful to the apostolic witness.
Origen (c.185-c.254)
Developed the notion of allegorical interpretation, arguing that the surface meaning of Scripture was to be distinguished from it deeper spiritual meaning. Established a tradition of distinguishing between the full divinity of the Father and the lesser divinity of the Son. Adopted the idea of apocatastasis (every creature-including both humanity and Satan- will be saved).
Tertullian (c.160-c.225)
He defended the unity of the Old and the New Testaments against Marcion, thus laying the foundation for a doctrine of the Trinity. He is also among the most forceful early exponents of the principle of the sufficiency of Scripture, denouncing those who appeal to secular philosophies.
Cyprian of Carthage (died 258)
His major essay "On the Unity of The Catholic Church" stresses the importance of visible, concrete unity among Christians, and the role of bishops in guaranteeing that unity.
Athanasius (c.296-c.373)
He wrote the trustise De incanatione Verbi ("On the incarnation of the Word"), a powerful defense of the idea that God assumed human nature in the person of Jesus Christ.
Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
A major part of Augustine's contribution lies in the development of theology as an academic discipline. Augustine's contribution was to achieve synthesis of Christian thought, supremely in him major treatise De civitate Dei, "On the City of God". He also made contributions to the doctrine of the church and sacraments, the doctrine of grace, and the doctrine of the Trinity.
Council of Nicea (325)
Convened by Constantine, the first Christian emperor, with a view of sorting out the destabilizing Christological disagreements within his empire. It settled the Arian controversy by affirming the Jesus was homoousios ("one in being") with the Father, thus rejecting the Arian position in favor of a vigorous assertion of the divinity of Christ.