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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Six Steps in conductings global market research
1. Define the research problem
2. Develope a research design
3. Determine information needs
4. Collect the data (secondary and primary)
5. Analyze the data and interpret the results.
6. Report and present the findings of the study.
What are the major challenges faced by global marketing researchers?
1. Complexity of research desing due to environment differences.
2. Lack and inaccuracy of secondary data.
3. Time and cost requirements to collect primary data.
4. Coordination of multicounty research efforts.
5. Difficuly in establishing comparability across multicountry studies.
Research Problem Formulation
*Start off with a precise definition of the research problems.
*these problems need to be translated into specific research questions.
*This is hindered by the self-reference criterion(SRC)-people's habit of falling back on their own cultural norms and values
*A major difficulty is unfamiliarity witht he foreign environment.
Omnibus Surveys
Exploritory research at the early stage of the research process. Regularly scheduled surveys that are conducted by research agencies (ACNielsen) with questions from different clients.
*The most economical way to gather preliminary information on target markets.
Secondary Marketing Research
Information that is already available (Lexis/Nexis).
Problems with Secondary Data Research
1.Accuracy of Data-how good is the quality. In emerging markets it is somethings inconsistant and unreliable.
2.Age of data-is it outdated
3.Reliability over Time-consistency
4.Comparability of Data-cross country research demands a comparison of indicators across countries and sometimes different sources produce condradictory information. Either triangulate or use functional or conceptual equivalence process.
Use to compare data in secondary research. Use at least 3 sources to verify your information.
Functional or conceptual equivalence
Use to compare data in secondary research. Comparability might be hindered by the lack of these things.
*Refers to the degree to which similar activities or products in different countries fulfill similar functions.
Primary Global Marketing Research
Data collected specifically for the purpose of that research study.
Types of Primary Global Marketing Research
1. Focus Groups
2. Survey Methosds for Cross-Cultural Marketing Research.
3. Questionnaire Design
Focus Group
Used for primary market research.
*Used before going on to large-scale quantitative research projects they will use exploratory research.
Survey Methods for Cross-Cultural Marketing Research
1. Design a questionnaire
2. Develope a sampling plan
3. Physical collection of information to the questionnaires.
Questionnaire Design
*The most popular instrument to gather primary data.
*Needs to fill 2 criteria: translation and scalar equivalence.
*To avoid sloppy translations use back translation or parallel translation
used in questionnaire design to avoid cultural biases.
*to translate the questionnaire into the language you want to research.
Scalar Equivalence
used in questionnaire design to avoid cultural biases.
*scores from subjects from different countries should have the same meaning
Back translation
used in questionnaires.
*a 2-phase processs.
*questionnaire is translated into the language by the native speaker and then retranslated back into original language by a person's whose native language is that.
*to collect data, the researcher has to draw a sample from the target population.
1.Sample unit-who should be surveyed.
2.Sample size-how many
3.Sampling prcedure-How should the respondents be chosen
Contact Method
HOw are you going to contact prospective subjects for the survey?
1. Mail-most common
2. Telephone
3. Person-to-person interviews
4. Online survey:
*email surveys
*random website surveys
*panel web site surveys
Problems with Primary Global Marketing Research
-Collecting the Information
*issues of nonresponse-most problematic
*courtesy bias-the desire to be polite with the other person
*Social desirability bias-the desire the say the correct answer and not the true one
To Solve problems of primary global marketing research
*Redundancy: ask the same question multiple times in different ways
*Ehtnographic research: not used as much today. Have someone go out into the culture and gather information by participation.
Market Size Assesment
To find out the size of the market for any given product.
1. Method of Analogy
2. Trade Audit
3. Chain Ration Method
4. Cross-Sectional Regression Analysis
Method of Analogy
Used for market size assesment
*pick a country of the same stage of economic development as the country of interest and for which the market size is known.
*Longitudinal method of analogy
Trade Audit
Used for market size assesment
*take the local production figures, add imports, and subtract exports.
Market size=Local Production+Imports-Exports
Chain Ratio Method
Used for market size assesment.
*Start with a rough base-number and fine-tune by applying a string (chain) of percentages to come up with the most meaningful estimate for total market potential.
Cross-Sectional Regression Analysis
the variable of interest is related to a set of predictor variables.
Rules of Market Size Assessment
1. Use several different methods
2. Dont be misled by numbers
3. Dont be misled by fancy methods
4. Do a sensitivity analysis by asking what-if questions
5. Look for interval estimates with a lower and upper limit rather than for point estimates.
New market information technologies
1. Point of sale (POS) store scanner data.
2. Consumer panel data (ACNielsen)
3. Single Source data
4. Continuous monitoring of brand sales/market share movements
Single source data
A new market information technology.
*coninuous data that combine for any given household member.
Continuous monitoring of brand sales/market share movements
A new market information technology.
*scanning data are used y manufacturers to support marketing decisions
*scanning data are used to provide merchangdising support to retailers.
Managing Global Marketing Research
*Selecting a research agency
*coordination of multi-country research.
Selecting Research Agency
Used to manage global marketing research.
The following considerations should be taken into account while choosing an agency
*Level of expertise
*Track record
*credibility and experience
*client record
Coordination of Multi-Country Research
Used to manage global marketing research
Emic v. Etic dilemma
*The emic school focuses on the peculiarities of each country
*the etic approach emphasizes universal behavior and attiduinal traits.
*in cross cultural market research, the need for comparability favors the etic paradigm with an emphasis on the cross-border similarities and parallels
*Several approaches may be used to balance these conflicting demands.