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45 Cards in this Set

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Urinary System
system responsible for excreting most liquid wastes from the body
kidney
one of the 2 organs that cleanses the blood of waste products continually produced by metabolism; the kidneys produce urine.
hilum
slit on medial surface of each lung where primary bronchi & pulmonary vessels enter
renal cortex
outer portion of the kidney
renal medulla
inner portion of the kidney
renal pyramids
distinct triangular wedges that make up most of the medullary tissue in the kidney
renal columns
within the kidneys, the cortical tissue in the medulla between the pyramids
calyx
cup-shaped division of the renal pelvis
renal pelvis
basinlike upper end of the ureter that's located inside the kidney into which the collecting tubules drain
renal artery
large branch of the abdominal aorta that brings blood into each kidney.
peritubular capillary
capillaries around the tubules in the kidney
ureter
long tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder
urinary bladder
collapsible saclike organ that collects urine from the kidneys & stores it before elumination
urethra
passageway from bladder to exterior; functions in elimination of urine
nephron
anatomical & functional unit of the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle & the renal tubule.
Bowman's capsule
in the kidney, the cup-shaped top of a nephron that surrounds the glomerulus
glomerulus
compact cluster, particularly when referring to the tuft of capillaries forming part of the nephron
renal corpuscle
within the nephron, the glomerulus plus the Bowman's capsule surrounding it
glomerular-capsular membrane
membrane made up of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane & visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
proximal convoluted tubule
2nd part of the nephrom & the 1st segment of a renal tubule
loop of henle
extension of the proximal tubule of the nephron.
distal tubule
in the kidney, the part of the tubule distal to the ascending limb in the loop of henle that terminates in a collecting tubule
juxtaglomerular apparatus
in the nephron, the complex of cells from the distal tubule & the afferent arteriole, which helps regulate blood pressure by secreting renin in response to blood pressure changes in the kidney, located near the glomerulus.
collecting duct
in the kidney, straight tubule joined by the distal tubules of several nephrons
filtration
movement of water & solutes through a membrane because of a higher hydrostatic pressure on one side
reabsorption
process occuring in the nephrons during urine formation whereby essential materials that were filtered out of the blood in the glomerulus are reabsorbed into the interstitial space.
secretion
process by which a substance is release outside the cell
anitdiuretic hormone
hormone produced in the posterior pituitary gland to regulate the balance of water in the body by accelerating reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules.
aldosterone
hormone that stimulates the kidney to retain sodium, ions, & water; only physiologically important mineralocorticoid
urine
fluid waste excreted by kidneys
Bowman's capsule
in the kidney, the cup-shaped top of a nephron that surrounds the glomerulus
glomerulus
compact cluster, particularly when referring to the tuft of capillaries forming part of the nephron
renal corpuscle
within the nephron, the glomerulus plus the Bowman's capsule surrounding it
glomerular-capsular membrane
membrane made up of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane & visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
proximal convoluted tubule
2nd part of the nephrom & the 1st segment of a renal tubule
loop of henle
extension of the proximal tubule of the nephron.
distal tubule
in the kidney, the part of the tubule distal to the ascending limb in the loop of henle that terminates in a collecting tubule
juxtaglomerular apparatus
in the nephron, the complex of cells from the distal tubule & the afferent arteriole, which helps regulate blood pressure by secreting renin in response to blood pressure changes in the kidney, located near the glomerulus.
collecting duct
in the kidney, straight tubule joined by the distal tubules of several nephrons
filtration
movement of water & solutes through a membrane because of a higher hydrostatic pressure on one side
reabsorption
process occuring in the nephrons during urine formation whereby essential materials that were filtered out of the blood in the glomerulus are reabsorbed into the interstitial space.
secretion
process by which a substance is release outside the cell
anitdiuretic hormone
hormone produced in the posterior pituitary gland to regulate the balance of water in the body by accelerating reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules.
aldosterone
hormone that stimulates the kidney to retain sodium, ions, & water; only physiologically important mineralocorticoid
urine
fluid waste excreted by kidneys