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33 Cards in this Set

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hemichordata
possess pharyngeal gill bars and slits
chordata
notochord, hollow dorsal nerve tube, and pharyngeal gill slits
urochordata
tunicates or sea squirts. sea squirts filter feed
cephalochordata
lancelets
craniata
presence of neural crest tissue during ontogeny and brain in cranium
myxiniformes
hagfishes. hagfishes restricted to marine waters
vertebrata
craniates with two or more semicircular canals, mineralized vertebrae, muscularized unpaired fins, and extrinsic eye msucle
petromyzontiformes
lampreys. characterized by the presence of oral hood. rasping "tongue" macerates victim's flesh. juvenile lampreys filter feed
gnathostomata
jawed vertebrata. also characterized by presence of three semicircular canals, including a horizontal canal, paired narial openings, and myelinated nerves
chondrichthyes
cartilaginous fishes. this group includes sharks, skates, and rays (elasmobranchs), and chimaeras (holocephalans).
osteichthyes
includes all bony fishes and tetrapods. characterized primitively by presence of endochonral bone, lungs, and an interhyal bone. within this group, there are two major lineages, lobe-fins and ray-fins.
sarcopterygii
lobe-fins. includes coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods.
tetrapoda
vertebrates with wrist and ankle bones and dactyly. all lissamphibians and amniotes are included
lissamphibia
frogs (anura), salamanders (caudata), and caecilians (gymnophiona). presence of pedicellate teeth. not completely free from water, most must lay eggs in water. none survive in salt water
amniota
presence of extra-embryonic membranes called amnion and allantois. "Fish" and lissamphibians lack the amnion and allantois, and are "an-amniotes", whereas reptiles and mammals are amniotes.
reptilia
possess color vision, second intercentrum is fused to first centrum in adults
testudines and sauria
development of cleidoic (terrestrial) egg is presumed to completely freed early reptiles from returning to water to complete early stage of life. testudines aka turtles have a bony shell. loss of teeth corroborates the shell synapomorphy.
mammalia
possess hair and milk glands. mammalia is the sister-group to reptilia.
actinopterygii
ray finned fishes. actinopterygii is characterized by presence of a single dorsal fin, primitively, and a specialized structure of the pectoral girdle.
saggital
refers to any vertical section along the long axis of the organism
frontal
refers to any horizontal section along the long axis of organism
anterior (aka cranial aka superior)
refers to direction, part, or surface towards the head end of the organism, or the direction in which it faces.
posterior (aka caudal aka inferior)
refers to direction, part, or surface towards tail end of the organism
dorsal
refers to direction, part, surface towards upper aspect or back of organism
ventral
refers to direction, part, or surface towards the lower aspect or belly of organism
medial
refers to direction, part, or surface towards the mid-line of the organism
lateral
refers to direction, part, or surface towards side of organism
proximal
refers to direction, part, or surface closest to some reference point
distal
refers to direction, part, or surface far from some reference point
superficial
refers to direction, part, or surface located near or on the exterior of the organism
deep
refers to direction, part, or surface located within the organism
adduction (aka flexion)
movement towards the body
abduction (aka extension)
movement away from body