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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does spinothalamics carry
pain
temp
crude touch
what does dorsal columns carry
proprioception
vibration
2 pt touch
sensation/light touch
what are the frontal release signs
grasp reflex
snout reflex
suckling reflex
what is dysdiadochokinesis
inability to perform rapid alternating movements
crebellar lesion
what is dysmetria
inability to perform point to point testing
cerebellar lesion
loss of motor strength
loss of proprioception
what is romberg test
achieve balance when standing with heels together an deyes closed
seen in 3 syphillis
problem c dorsal columns
walking on toes tests what nerve root
S1
walking on heels tests what nerve root
L4/5
what is Brudzinkski's sign
flex chin to chest
involuntary hip flexion
meningeal irritation
what is kernig's sign
flex both hip and knee to 90
hold hip immobile and extend hip
meningeal irritation
what is nuchal rigidity
involuntary m spasm limits supine movement
tophi of the external ear suggest what
gout
how do you dx otitis externa
pull gently on the auricle
painful with pulling
pressing on the tragus
painful with pressing
what are the symptoms of otitis externa
itching
intense pain c pinna movement
watery then purulent
may have conductuve loss if swelling
what is cerumen
waxy substance secreted by the glands lining the external canal
where is the pars flaccida locatated
superior portion of the tympanum
where is the pars tensa located
inferior portion of the tympanum
does the pars flaccda/pars tensa bulge first
pars flaccida
what are the symptoms and physical findings in otitis media serous (viral)
sticking, crackling
no pain
retracted membrane (in)
air fluid level or bubbles
change in light reflex
ossicles more pronounced
what are the symptoms and physical findings in otitis media suppurative (bacterial)
sensation of blockage
deep internal aching
fever, nausea
tympanum red
bulging tympanum
change in cone of light
possible conductive loss
how does the tympanum perforate
usually trauma
ear tubes
infection
what is a cholesteatoma
epithelial cyst
grows slowly (may erode and destroy bone)
may look like an onion peel of white skin formed into a ball
what is tympanosclerosis
calcium deposits result on the drum secondary to repeated infxs.
membrane thickening produced by hyalinization (scarring
what is otosclerosis
degeneration of ossicles
change from mineralized to spongy bone
M/C CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS
gradual slow hearing loss
what is Meniere's Dz
endolymphatic hydrops
sensorineural
vertigo (nausea, vomitting)
fullness in ear
what type of loss do you get with sensorineural loss
loss of high frequency
what type of loss do you get with conduction loss
loss of low frequency
what is a geographic tongue
benign migratory glossitis
multiple sensitive irregularly shaped erythematous patches
atrophy of filiform papillae
what is black hairy tongue
papilla fail to fall off
cause - Ab
what is leukoplakia
thickened white patches
painfree
result of chronic inflammation
premalignant
what is lichen planus
inflammation of skin, mucous membranes
painless
white lace like pattern
benign
what is oral thrush
candidiasis
creamy white lesions (cottage cheese appearance)
may be painful
cause - medications
what is another name for peritonsillar abscess
quinsy
retropharyngeal abscess
what is a peritonsillar abscess
sequelae of acute tonsilitis
collection of infected material around tonsils
what does bacterial acute tonsillitis look like
enlarged white pockets
what does viral acute tonsillitis look like
redness with drainage
what is a torus palatinus
benign tumor
outgrowths on upper palate
the parotid gland contains what duct and where is it located
stensen's duct
opens adjacent to 2nd molar
the submandibular gland contains what duct and where is it located
wharton's duct
opening adjacent to frenulum
is an indirect hernia superior/inferior to scrotum
superior
is a direct hernia superior/inferior to scrotum
inferior
what is phimosis
unable to retract foreskin
prevents retraction over glans
what is paraphymosis
foreskin trapped behind glands
what is hypospadias
urinary meatus opening on the ventral surface
what is epispadias
urinary meatus opening on the dorsal surface
what is priapism
sustained painful erection
if firm nodules are found on the testicular exam what should you be worried about
consider malignancy
what is cryptorchism
what are the complications
undescended testes
infertility
cancer
what is orchitis
what is it a complication of
inflammation of testes
mumps
will orchitis transilluminate
no
what is a varicocele
where does it occur
what are the s/s
varicosities in pampiniform plexus
usually left sided
dull, ache, heavy sensation
bag of worms
what is testicular torsion
spermatic cord twists
needs to be corrected within 6 hrs
what is a hydrocele
will it transilluminate
collection of serous fluid from defect/irritation of tunica vaginalis
will transilluminate
what are the two types of hydroceles
non-communicating
peritoneal fluid between visceral and parietal layers
communicating
what is a spermatocele
benign cystic accumulation of sperm found in head of epididymitis
asymptomatic
what is a hematocele
how does it occur
blood surrounding the teste
direct trauma
what is epididymitis
how does it occur
M/C CAUSE OF PAINFUL SWELLING IN POSTPUBERTAL MALES
ascending infection (reflux from bladder into cord)
use Ab for infection
what are the characteristics for testicular CA
irregular
painless
hard
does not transilluminate
age 15-34
where does the direct hernia occur
where does it push on your finger
inferior to scrotum
thru hesselbach triangle
pushes on side of finger (pad)
where does the indirect hernia occur
where does it push on your finger
superior to scrotum
intestines thru canal
can torsion the testes
pushes on tip of finger
what are the characteristics of an inguinal hernia
least common hernia
more common in females
thru femoral triangle
what are anal fissures
lacerations in epithelium
tear in lining of anus
painful on BM
chronic (proximal end with granulation tissue appearing as polyp)
what are anal fistulas
chronic granulomatous tract from anorectal canal thru skin to anus
inflammation/infection of glands that burrows into skin
what does the dentate line separate
divids squamous/columnar
below line is extremely pain sensitive
what is a thrombosed hemorrhoid
vein inside the external hemorrhoid breaks
what is a prolapsed internal hemorrhoid
protrude outside the anus
describe the characteristics of BPH
painless
enlargement
non nodules
median sulcus may disappear
what are the s/s with acute prostatitis
LBP
boggy/painful
bladder reflux
what are characteristics of prostate CA
hard nodules
painless enlargement
what is myopia
nearsighted
eye elongates
what is hyperopia
farsighted
eye shortens
what is presbyopia
ciliar m weakness
what does pinhole testing rule in or out
when pinhole testing is performed, if the deficit corrects with pinhole
= refractive problem
what is PERLA
pupils equal, reactive to ligh and accomodation
describe Argyll Robertson pupil and what it is associated with
pupils accomodate
not responsive to light
tertiary syphillis
describe Adie's pupil and who gets it more
pupil fixed and dilated
poor response to light and accomodation
females more common
idiopathic
asymptomatic
what is strabismus
tropia
deviation not corrected by fusion
paralytic or mechanical
what is phoria
deviation corrected by fusion
what is amblyopia
visual impairment in an otherwise normal eye
what type of impairment will not change with covering/uncovering
exotropia
what type of impairment will change with covering/uncovering
phoria
what are the two types of strabismus
paralytic
nonparalytic
describe marcus gunn pupil and what does it suggest
intact consensual light response
paradoxical pupil dilation to direct light
suggests
optic n lesion
extensive retinal disorder
what nerves are affected with ptosis
CN 3
CN 7
describe Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma
eye pain
steamy cornea
red
intraocular pressure increased
what is a stye (external hordeolum)
infection of the glands of zeiss and moll
what is a chalazion
internal hordeolum
infection of deep meibomian glands
what is xanthelasma
yellowish plaque beneath skin
lipid laden macrophages
what is ectropion
eversion of lid
what is entropion
inversion of lid
describe Horner's syndrome
miosis
ptosis
anhydrosis
what is dacryocystitis
excessive tearing
tenderness
swelling
redness
red, inflamed bump on inner corner of of lower lid
what is subconjuctival hemorrhage
red bloody patch on white of eye
painless
what is corneal arcus
discoloration around limbus
half the pts have high chol
hyperlipidemia
describe wilson's disease
what do you see
copper deposits
autosomal recessive trait
kayser-fleisher rings
what is a pterygium
slow growing raised lesion on the cornea
ct and vascular tissue growing on sclera
describe allergic conjunctivits
itching
mucoid discharge
always bilateral
describe viral conjunctivitis
M/C CAUSE OF ACUTE RED EYE
ocular discomfort
watery discharge
describe bacterial conjunctivitis
diffuse conjunctival injection
PURULENT discharge
what are cataracts
denaturation of the lens proteins
what is a hyphema
what are the s/s
what is a complication
blood in the anterior chamber
decreased vision
complication is glaucoma