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77 Cards in this Set

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What are the only bones to go through intramembranous/intramedullary ossification?
1. Clavicle
2. Parietal (Partial)
3. Scapula (Partial)
Which bone is both Intramembranous AND Endochondral?
Scapula
Where is endochondral ossification performed?
In the cartilage
The ileum and jejunum are derived from which embryological structure of the GI tract?
Midgut
What does the gubernaculum become in men?
Scrotal ligament (aka gubernacular testis)
What does the gubernaculum become in women?
1. Suspensory ligament of the ovary
2. Ovarian ligament
3. Round ligament
What travels with the suspensory ligament of the ovary?
1. Ovarian Artery
2. Ovarian Vein
What embryological structure gives rise to the thyroid?
Foramen cecum
What classification of cells are the follicular and parafollicular cells of the thyroid?
Simple cuboidal
What classification of cells are responsible for CSF production?
Simple cuboidal
What is a rare cell type/classification in the body?
1. Stratified cuboidal
(2. Stratified columnar)
Macrophages in the lungs?
Dust cells
Macrophages in the liver?
Kupffer cells
Macrophages in the brain?
Microglia cells
Macrophages in the skin?
Langerhan cells
Where is reticular tissue found?
Lymph nodes and spleen
(Reticular = Type III Collagen)
What % of body weight is the skin?
15%
What layer of the epidermis is only found in the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet?
Stratum lucidum
Where is the melanin located in the epidermis?
Stratum Germinativum or Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)
What part of the skin contains macrophages?
Hypodermis
What layer of the skin contains fibroblasts?
Hypodermis
Which extrinsic muscle of the tongue is NOT innervated by CN XII?
Palatoglossus (CN X)
What separates the base of the tongue from the anterior/mobile part of the tongue?
Circumvallate papillae
What lies posterior to the circumvallate papillae?
Lingual tonsils
Which taste buds are not involved with taste?
Filiform (also the smallest and most numerous)
Which taste buds are the largest and fewest?
Circumvallate (aka vallate)
Where are the circumvallate papillae located in relation to the sulcus terminalis?
Anterior
Where are the foliate taste buds located?
Sides of the tongue
When the adenoids swell, what structure can they affect?
They can occlude the opening to the eustachaian tube.
What is the name of the nasopharynx opening of the auditory tube?
Torus Tubarius
Which muscle opens the jaw?
External/lateral pterygoid
What muscle is the primary closer of the jaw?
Masseter
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located?
Nasopharynx
At what vertebral level does the trachea begin?
C6
Where do the vocal cords attach?
Arytenoid Cartilages
Which vocal cords close the glottis, and what action is this?
Posterior Cricoarytenoids, Abduction
Which vocal cords open the glottis, and what action is this?
Lateral Cricoarytenoids, Adduction
Which ligament is considered a "false vocal cord"?
Vestibular ligament
What structure is continuous with the root of the neck?
1. Thoracic Outlet
2. Thoracic Inlet
Thoracic INLET (aka "Superior Thoracic Aperture")
(FYI: Thoracic Outlet is the "Inferior Thoracic Aperture.)
What is the name of the area where the esophagus meets the greater curvature of the stomach?
Cardiac Notch
What type of muscle is in the esophagus?
BOTH smooth and striated
At what vertebral level does the vagus nerve enter the diaphragm?
T10 (with esophagus)
At what vertebral level does the azygous vein enter the diaphragm?
T12 (with aorta and thoracic duct)
What structure does the IVC pierce when it enters through the diaphragm? What vertebral level?
Central Tendon of the diaphragm at T8
Which muscles are responsible for expiration? For Inspiration?
Expiration: Internal Intercostals
Inspiration: External Intercostals
What do the right crus and left crus of the diaphragm form?
MediaN arcuate ligament
What is the medial arcuate ligament derived from?
Psoas major fasica
What is the lateral arcuate ligament derived from?
Quadratus Lumborum fascia
What connects organs to the posterior abdominal wall?
Mesentery
What connect organs to one another?
Ligaments
What does the greater omentum connect?
Greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon
What does the lesser omentum connect?
Lesser curvature of the stomach to the Liver
What is the opening to the Greater and Lesser peritoneal sacs?
Epiploic Foramen (aka "Foramen of Winslow")
When the duodenum is divided into 4 parts, which is/are are located in the peritoneal cavity?
1st/Superior Part
(Parts 2-4 are in the retroperitoneal cavity)
Which portions of the colon retroperitoneal?
Ascending & Descending
What part of the pancreas is NOT retroperitoneal?
Tail
Where is the lingula located?
Left Lung
Which lung contains the horizontal fissure?
Right Lung
Which lung hilum has the pulmonary artery as the most superior structure?
Left Lung
At what vertebral level does the trachea end? At what structure?
T4, Sternal Angle (aka "Angle of Louis")
What is the Carinae?
Bifurcation of the Trachea
What type of cartilage is located from the trachea to secondary bronchus?
Hyaline
Which primary bronchus is more commonly obstructed & Why?
Right - it's more horizontal
How many Tertiary Bronchi are on the Right? And on the Left?
Right: 10
Left: 8
Where does fluid in the lungs usually accumulate?
Costodiagphragmatic recess
What is the cupola?
Apex of cervical pleura - above the clavicle.
Where is the heart located in the mediastinum?
Middle Mediastinum
What anatomical landmark divides the superior and Inferior mediastinum?
Sternal angle
What is the main vein of the heart?
Coronary Sinus
Which heart chamber does the Coronary Sinus drain into?
Right Atrium
Which three veins does the coronary sinus receive?
1. Great Cardiac
2. Middle Cardiac
3. Small Cardiac
What artery travels with the small cardiac vein?
Marginal Artery
What 2 vessels travel in the posterior interventricular groove?
1. Middle Cardiac Vein
2. Right Coronary Artery
Which 2 vessels travel in the anterior interventricular groove?
1. Great Cardiac Vein
2. Anterior Interventricular Artery
Which vein ascends with the anterior interventricular artery?
Great Cardiac Vein
What groove do the anterior interventricular artery and great cardiac vein travel in?
Anterior Interventricular Groove
Which vessels run in the coronary groove?
1. Marginal Artery
2. Small Cardiac Vein