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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tribal people of the steppe in China who overthrew the Song dynasty and began the Yuan dynasty in the 13th century
Kubilai Khan
Grandson to Chinggis Khan, established the Yuan dynasty and conquered the Southern Song to control all of China
Zhu Yuanzhang (Hongwu, Taizu)
Founder of the Ming dynasty, rumored to be a member of the White Lotus Society rebels
Ming Treasure Ships
Sent out by early Ming emperors to establish China's supremacy and retrieve tribute from other countries
Matteo Ricci
Jesuit who mastered Chinese and the Classics; was the first to succeed at getting into China, and was allowed to live in the capital
Rites Controversy
Debate between Protestants and Jesuits on whether or not Confucianism was a religion and whether or not Chinese Christians should be allowed to practice ancestor worship
Qing Dynasty
Dynasty from the 17th century to the 20th century, run by Manchu, based their government on Chinese government so transition would be seamless
Qianlong Emperor
Emporer of the Qing who made a concerted effort to patronize Chinese culture, became known for his destruction of any anti-Qing literature
Opium War
Battle between England and Qing dynasty, England was smuggling opium into China in order to pay for the tea they imported
Hong Xiuquan
Founder of the Taiping religion, leader of the Rebellion. Failed the exams numerous times, believed he had had a vision and God wanted him to exterminate demons and save mankind, and that he was Jesus' brother, established a capital and dynasty in Nanjing
Self-strengthening movement
A movement to incorporate Western education and ideals in order to modernize China so it could compete with the rest of the modern world, "using barbarian techniques against barbarians"
100 Days Reform
An attempt to reform China similar to how Japan had adapted to the Western world, initiated by scholars who held no office, seen as a threat to the government, were put down by the Empress Dowager
Boxer Uprising
A group of martial artists who tried to eradicate foreigners, were originally backed by the Qing, even though the Qing were part of who they were going against, essentially a peasant uprising, eventually supported the Qing because the Qing were backing them, became part of the Imperial Army in a war declared on all treaty powers which eventually led to the fall of the Qing
Religious movement started by Hong Xiuquan, took much from Old Testament Christianity, were originally backed by the Qing when they were going against foreigners, but eventually were put down by the Qing dynasty when they started their own dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
Foreign-run dynasty of the Mongols, run by Chinggis and Khubilai Khan, Mongols held largest empire in history before being rebelled against by Chinese
Ming Dynasty
Chinese-run dynasty founded by a rebel from the Yuan dynasty, sought tribute from all foreign countries it came in contact with, eventually fell due to inept and disinterested emperors, and the strength of the eunuchs and the Grand Secretariat
Yongle (Chengzu)
3rd Ming emperor who led military and tribute expeditions, defeated 2nd Ming emperor in a civil war, sponsored Neo-Confucianism by making complete Mencius available
Li Zicheng
Postal attendant who led a revolution against the Ming dynasty, could not maintain the empire as he had no support from scholar-officials, opened the way for the Manchu to start the Qing
Missionaries from the West who studied Chinese texts and practiced Chinese traditions in order to win over the higher governmental officers to Christianity, converted from the top down, allowed Confucianism
Banner System
Military organization system instituted by the Manchu, organizing the army into "banners" based on heredity and ethnicity (Mongolian, Chinese, Manchurian)
Kangxi Emperor
Qing emperor who completed the Manchu conquest of China, first intervention in Tibet against the Mongols, preserved Manchu culture but was not anti-Chinese, strict balance in government, was benevolent
Canton Trade System
Trade in Canton through merchants, foreigners were required to stay in "warehouses" in Canton, and could not bring their wives, merchants controlled by imperial official, no direct access to officials, no government-to-government relations
Treaty of Nanjing
First of the unequal treaties, gave up 5 ports to trade with the British, granted them most-favored nation status, began the downfall of the Qing
Zeng Guofan
Commander of a regional army in Hunan that assisted in defeating the Taiping Rebellion, member of the School of Statecraft, one of the initiators of the Self-Strengthening movement
Sino-Japanese War
War over Korea between Japan and China, troops were sent in to put down a rebellion, and instead war erupted when Japan kidnapped the Korean king and queen
Kang Youwei
One of the leaders of the 100 Days Reform movement, attempted to reform China to compete with the rest of the world, believed Confucius was progressive, wanted to follow Japan's example of restructuring administration, ultimately put down by the Empress Dowager, 100 Days Reform was unsuccessful, believed in the Ages of Disorder, Order/Approaching Peace, Great Peace (rule by the people), wanted to reform education
Tribute System
China's way of establishing superiority, expected outside countries to send tribute gifts to acknowledge superiority, viewed all outside countries as barbarians and inferior
Empress Dowager Ci Xi
Became regent for her son, then her nephew and essentially ran China for the rest of her life, sided with the conservatives, held off any real efforts of reform, and acted in her own interests