Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Yuan Shikai
(1859-1916) 1st president of the republic; important general who switched sides to the revolutionaries; ordered assassination of key Nationalist organizer in 1913 when Nationalist Party won parliamentary elections; successfully used military force against provinces that declared independence; Western political scientist suggested China needed an emperor; Emperor for only 83 days; faced lots of opposition
bodyguard to Qing Emperor Qianlong; abuse of his power and blatant corruption discovered after emperor died; executed & property confiscated valued 800 million ounces silver
Lin Zexu
Qing Official who attempted to stop the Opium trade in 1839; offered to trade opium for tea at a favorable ratio for the British and wrote letter to Queen Victoria; asked the Portuguese to expel the British from Macao; exiled because China believed he allowed the war to start.
(1559-1616) Created the Manchu state; took 30 years to create. Changed government from tribal to bureaucracy; aided by the creation of a Manchu script. Established banner system in China. Forced Chinese men to adopt Manchu hairstyle (queue). His son established the Qing Dynasty.
Khitan tribes united into the Liao dynasty (907-1123) and competed for north China; effectively resisted sinification; defeated by Jurchens (Jin) in 1125
Manchuria; early in the twelfth century a confederation of Jurchen tribes was formed into the Jin dynasty, allied with the Song and attacked the Liao, but after the Liao were defeated in 1125, the Jurchens turned on the Song & conquered North China. Rapidly adopted Chinese customs
Chinggis grandson (r. 1260-94); conquered the Song dynasty and created Yuan dynasty; discouraged Mongols form marrying Chinese & took only Mongol women into the palace
Dowager Empress Cixi
(ruled from 1861-1908) Qing; supported boxers; coup to stop Guangxu 1898 Reforms; Abolished civil service exams in 1905
Wen Tianxiang
Yuan dynasty; resistance to Mongol invasion; in the thirteenth century; executed by Khubilai
Emperor Taizu
(1328-1398) poor rebel who established the Ming Dynasty in 1368; self-supporting army; ceased holding examinations for over a decade; turned palace guard into a secret police force to spy on officials; felt driven to rid the world of evil people
Wei Zhongxian
(Donglin Academy) Ming dynasty eunuch accused by official Yang Lian of great crimes; young emperor & power hungry eunich; eventually Yang and 5 others were publicly arrested and tortured to death. Other rounds of arrests, tortures, deaths, and protests soon followed
Mao Zedong
leader of Communist party 1949-1976; traditional Chinese education, poet, military strategist, writer philosopher, romantic idealist. Wanted to create a new & different society based on equality
Emperor Wanli
(r.1573-1620) Ming emperor who stopped attending to government affairs and let eunuchs take over tax collection
Macartney mission
1793 sent to Qing Emperor Qianlong; noticed chinese ill prepared for war
Emperor Chengzu
Ming Emperor in 15th century; Beijing into the Forbidden City; 15 locks added to the Grand Canal to supply the capital; forbid palace eunuchs from learning to read or interfere in politics
Lu Xun
(1881-1936) author & commentator; One of the first authors to write well in the vernacular; Argued for modernization, new cultural movement in the early 20th century; critical of Chinese traditions
Yue Fei
Song Dynasty, loyal minister-general, resisted Jurchen invasion in north; 1140 successful attack, but ordered by Gaozong to withdraw; advisor Qin
May 4th Movement
1919, about 3,000 students assembled in Tiananmen Square after they learned that decisions of the Versailles Peace Conference favored Japan; China refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles
Matteo Ricci
Ming dynasty; end of the 16th century; Well-educated Jesuit missionary
Wang Anshi
Under Song Emperor Shenzong (1067-1085) launched a thorough reform of the government
Li Zicheng
1636 emerged as leader of rebel gangs; peasant rebellion; former shepherd & postal relay station worker; during the decline of the Ming dynasty; took control in the north; established new dynasty after the last Ming emperor committed suicide; Confucian scholars supported rebellion; disciplined soldiers, but behavior changed after success of rebellion & the people no longer believed they were capable of ruling
Wang Yangmin
(1472-1529) Ming dynasty Philosopher; neo-Confucianist; different ideas; inaugurated a period of intellectual debate; moral knowledge innate in the mind; self-cultivation could be practiced in everyday affairs
Zheng He
Ming eunuch who was sent by Chengzu on overseas voyages of 1405 to 1433; not cost-efficient
(1860-1895) (Li Hongzhang); 30-35 years of modernization; initiated by Qing officials. Borrow western technology that built superior guns & ships and built modern military factories, and modern communication, transportation systems. After Taiping Rebellion, need for reform & revitalize dynasty: reestablish local control, restore economy by reducing government expenditures, repair transportation infrastructure, induce peasants to return to abandoned land; recognized need to understand and deal with western nations; modernization failed due to unequal treaties and resistance to self-strengthening measures. Ended with the Sino-Japanese war
Su Dongpo
(1037-1101) Song dynasty poet & essayist enmeshed in the politics of his day. Outspoken policy critic & leader of the opposition to Wang Anshi (reforms)
Emperor Guangxu
Qing emperor for 3 months; issued 110 new education, government, commerce and military reforms in 103 days in 1898
Cultural Revolution
Initiatives of the bureaucracy caused Mao to feel that his power was being taken away; set in motion spring of 1966; Mao stated that to rebel is justified, but it created out of control chaos; Red Guard became powerful; directed at youth; youth movement similar to Civil Rights movement; ended in 1976
1911 Revolution
(Dr. Sun Yat-sen & Yuan Shikai) ended Qing dynasty; Several warlords were controlling different areas after the dynasty fell, so there was no effective central government, economic tax system. Revolution was to solve these problems, but it was unsuccessful
Kang Youwei
Qing; 1861-20th century; advised Guangxu; leader of the young scholars who presented a memorial to the throne urging reforms; they stated that China needed to raise taxes, develop a state bank, build a railway network & commercial fleet, and set up a modern postal system; Confucian scholars struggling to find justification for modernization; helped Emperor Guangxu step up reform; traveled widely; also spoke out on the need to change ways of thinking about women & their social roles (footbinding & education)
Banner system
old Manchu military & social org.; military not needed after Qing dynasty established, so government stipen given to ex-military, who became lazy playboys
1898 Reform
Qing; China lost war to Japan, so Emperor Guangxu issued 110 reforms in 103 days to modernize China. Coup by Empress Dowager Cixi sabotaged this reform effort. Japanese modernization was more thorough thru reform, so China learned from Japan
Zhu Xi
Highly educated Confucian scholar of the Southern Song dynasty who was much criticized for his personal interpretations of the classics; played an active role in developing the institutional basis of a revived Confucianism
Zeng Gufan
Qing; mid 19th century; opposed Taipings; took 10 years to destroy the Taipings & death toll was enormous
Donglin Academy
base of last great protest movement of the Ming; called for a revival of orthodox Confucian ethics, rejecting liberal views of men like Wang Yangmin; Officials from both sides accused & impeached each other
Sino-Japanese War
(1894) Qing; Chinese navy fared poorly and China sued for peace; agreed to cede Taiwan, pay 250 million ounces of silver, and gave Japan the right to open factories in China