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92 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Zhong Guo
middle kingdom, what the chinese called their homeland
Why does China have the oldest continuous civilation in the world?
Because the lack of outside contact, China developed a strong culture which sread across many regions. As a result China has the oldest continuous civilization in the world.
What landforms account for the early isolation of China?
Eveywhere on China there are barriers that blocked communication and movement. Mountains are 1/3 of China's area.
What are the 3 major rivers in China?
Huange He (Yellow River), Chang Jiang (Yangtze River), and Xi Jiang (West River)
Why is the Yellow River, called the Yellow River?
In the Yellow River, there is loess (a rish yellow soil) It carries the loess away so it deposits further down the course. The abundance of this yellow soil give the river the name Yellow River.
What is China's Sorrow?
The Huang He and Yellow River is sometimes called China's Sorrow beacsue of the tragdy this river brings with its floods.
What geographical features contributed to successful farming on the North China Plain?
The silt that is delivered from huang He's flooding transformed the land into rich farmland, also the favorable climated contributed to it.
Who is Yu the Great?
He founded China's first dynasty (Xia)
What is the Xia Dynasty?
It is supposedly the first dynasty. There is no evidence of this dynasty however.
what is the shang dynasty
This is the first historical dynasty recorded- founded by Tang
What did the Shang kings do?
They were political leaders and high and also high priests, so they could communicate with the nature deities on behalf of the people.
Describe the first known examples of writing in China.
A priest scratched a question on an oracle bone, heat was applied to it and the bone would crack, the king would study the pattern of the cracks and interpret the answer to the question.
Describe the writing in China during the Shang period time.
There was a script with many characters. The characteres represented idea, sounsd, or objects and were written in vertical columns. They were from an older system of pictograms. Since few people could memorize all the characters very few people could read and write.
What were the shang achievements?
metal casting- wove silk- fashioned clay- built their first cities- first example of writing
How did the shang dynasty end?
Their leaders were not strong and in time grew weak. Wu (used to live on shang territory) marched in and killed the shang king and created a new dynasty.
Describe the principle- mandate of heaven
The rulers recieved a mandate- authority to rule from heaven- if the ruler didn't govern properly the mandate was given up to someone else who started a new dynasty
Why did Hindus become unnhappy with their religion?
They didn;t like all the rituals and wanted a more spiritual faith.
Who founded Buddhism?
Siddharta Gautama
Why did Siddharta Gautama wander for 7 years?
Since he lived a sheltered life, one day he saw all the sickness and bad things in the world and wondered why there was suffering. He went on a journey for 7 years seeking the truth to suffering, didn't find it then
When did Siddharta Gautama find the truth to why there was suffering.
He was sitting under a Bodi tree and has a flash of insight that he thought gave him the answer
What was it called when Gautama wandered for 7 years?
The Great Renunciation
What are the main elements of the 4 Noble Truths?
Life is full of pain and sufering, the cause of suffering is craving and desire, to stop suffering you need to stop craving and desiring tings, this is accomplished by living an ethical life and following the 8-fold path
What were the 8 behaviors Buddha said would lead to Nirvana?
Right views, Right effort, Right action, right livelihood, Right speech, Right meditation, Right awareness, and Right thoughts
What is nirvana?
when the cycle of reincarnation ends
What conditions did Buddha place on the accumulation of wealth.
It was ok to be wealthy as long as your money was gained lawfully and used well
How did Buddhism spread to places liek China, japan, and korea?
When their leader died, traveling monks carried the Buddhist religion beyond India and around the world
Describe some of the artistic and architectural developments associated with Buddhism.
Stupas- were large stone mounds put over the bones of Buddhist people- there were many painting and statues of the Buddha- books written on Buddha's life and teachings
What was the difference between the Thervada Branch and Mahayana Branch?
Thervada- was very close to the original teachings of Buddhism
Mahayana- encouraged worship of Buddha as a divine being and savior
What were the 3 dynasties?
Zhou, Qin, Han
What did the Zhou rule under, and wat did they call thing kings?
They ruled under the mandate of heaven and called their king the son of heaven
Describe the system the Zhou used to control their holdings.
The nobles owned the land and the serfs or peasants worked it- the nobles appointed their relatives to govern
What were 4 technological advances made under the Zhou?
Built and improved roads, expanded foriegn trade, added the crossbow, further elaborated picture writing, got horses and built a cavalry
HOw did Qin get control of China?
THey got rid of the Zhou and conquered the rest of N. China- united most of the nation unders a strong central authority
What was the first Qin ruler called, and what did his name mean.
Shihuangdi- means first emperor
List 4 ways Qin centralizeed his control and unified the country.
organized the empire into 36 military districts-made a system of weights and measures-standarized coin-uniform writing system- uniform code of law
Why and how was the Great Wall built?
to prevent attacks by nomadic barbarians- the previous walls were connected into one
Why did the nobles, scholars, and peasants hate the Qin?
Destroyed the aristocracy-burned books- hated his force labored gangs
Who overthrew the Win government
Liu Bang
Who was the most important emperor of the Han dynasty?
How did Wudi extend his empire?
sent huge armies against their enemies and conquered lands to the north
What was the importance of the expedition led by Zhang Qian?
The expedition gave Han rulers the first hint that there was civilizations elsewhere.
What were two policies adopted by Wudi?
Economic policy-n prevent food shortages and high prices, Civil service system- allowed anybody with ability to hold public office
Who were the mandarins?
a new class of well educated civil servants who controlled the government
What weere the two important philosophies during the Zhou era?
COnfucianism and daoism
According to Confucius, how could social order be achievedd?
if everybody had a proper role in society
Confucius believed that individuals should live according the the principles of ethics that began with...
respect for the family and reverence for the part and its traditions
What were the 5 primary relationships described by Confucius?
ruler-subject, parent-child, husband-wife, old-young, family-friend
What was family according to Conficus?
society in minature`
According to Confucius, wat was the duty of government?
to set an example of right conduct
What was filial piety?
children's respect for their parents
How did the Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties reguard Confucius?
Zhou- didn't accept Confucius' ideas, Qin-rejected books. Han- his teachings provided the basis for the civil service system
Who founded Daoism?
How did Laozi's ideas differ from Confucius' ideas?
He didn't support social structures and that each person should fill a specific role in society
Where are Laozi's ideas recorded
Dao de Fing
How did Daoist's live?
They lived according to nature- attuned themselves completely to nature
How could you be Confucius and Daoist?
they emphasized different things- confucius focused on government and social order, Daoism focused on hamony
During Han how was the family organized?
How were women treated under the Confucian social system?
they were subordinate-valued less- girl babies were less important than boy babies- had more value however than they would in later centures
What were the 3 main classes in Chinese society?
landowners, peasants, and merchants
Describe the 3 classes
landowners- wealthy, nice homes..peasants- labor workers on land- gave part of their produce to their landowner- were drafted int eh army during conflict, merchant- lowest class- their pursuit of profit was unworthy-couldnt take the civil service exam
What did the civil service exams cause the Chinese to do?`
they could advance classes
What was the Book of Songs
has 305 of the earliest chinese poiems
What was the book of documents?
has political speeches and documents
What was the book of change?
complex system for foretelling the future
What was the spring and autumn annals?
major events during Lu
What was analects?
a book of Confucius' sayings
What was the first true history of china
Historical Record by Sima Qian
What were contributions the chinese made in astronomy, medicine, agricuture, and transportation?
Astronomy- calculated the length of the solar year, medicine- recognized the importance of nutriton, agriculture-complex irrigation systems, transportation- new canals and roadways
what were 2 innovations in ancient china?
silk, paper, and porcelain
What was the one major thing during teh Sui dynasty?
the Grand canal
Under the Tang dynasty how did people gain positions in government?
by taking the civil service exams
What was the silk road?
A route that chinese luxury goods passed through
what was the song philosophy
what was the name of the group who passed the civil service test
under what dynasty was porcelain made
what was a concubine
any wife after the first
castrated male
genghis kahn
universal ruler, mongol warrior and united all the mongols
code of laws
kublai kahn
genghis' grandson- tried to keep Mongol culture in his Yuan dynasty
Marco Polo
a foreigner assigned to a government position- traveled throughout China
Forbidden city
in the Ming dynasty, where the emperor and his family lived, ordinary people had to stay clear
a braid at the back of the head all the chinese men had to have
What was the purpose of the scholar official system
to select officials to run the government and the country
what was the scholar official system based on
the confucian code of ethics
When did the scholar official system come into use
tang dynasty
when was the peak of the scholar official system
who was eligible to take the exam
any man with time and money
what was the key to success converning the exam
education- had to start studying very early to pass the exams
What were the 3 minor exams?
district exam, frefecture exam, qualifying exam
what were the 3 hard tests to pass
provincial exam, metropolitan exam, palacew exam
what was teh examination content
to commit the confucian classics to memory, to be a good calligrapher, write poetry