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17 Cards in this Set

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Triads
Secreted society that recruited in mid 1840s while British navy drove pirates away from the coast into the Guangdong Guanxi River.
Guangdong-Guanxi
river that the british drove pirates into that were trying to attack canton villages
Shanghai
new port city
hakkas
-most susceptible to western influence
-Northern Chinese immigrants to the south who were treated as an ethnic minority by original Cantonese settlers
-High literacy rate and success in examinations
-Spoke a Hakka language
-More independent and powerful than Cantonese women
-Economic competitors because women worked also
Taiping Rebellion
-Pivotal uprising (1850-64) by the Hakkas
-Captured nanjing and created a new dynasty
Hong Xiuquan
-his mystical revelations inspired the Taiping rebellion (1851-64)
-told to restore christianity to china
society of god worshipers
-created by hong xiuquan
-They were baptized into a sect living apart from south Chinese country side
-turned isolation into a community
Yang Xiuqing
-Southern Chinese leader of christianty and follower of Society of God Worshipers
-Fell into a trance, woke up and spoke in a voice of the wholly ghost
-Rivaled Hong for the leadership of this movement
Peking (the future Beijing)
Lord Elgin ordered his troops to march on Peking, which they did, and burnt the summer palace to the ground in 1860
Lord Elgin (James Bruce)
-Britain's chief treaty negotiator
-Ordered troops to march on Peking in 1860 after the Qing arrested and executed some british there
Dagu Forts
-Only British concession was to return Dagu forts to Qing control
-British attacked here, though, to try to enforce new treaty terms but they were driven off by strengthened Qing forces (this sparked Britains attack on Peking)
Xianfeng
aggressively anti foreign emperor who was succeeded in 1861 by his five year old son, who's mother Cixi acted as regent/empress
Treaty of Tianjin
-Had to be ratified by the emperor
-Western reps to come to Beijing and exchange signed copies of the document
-Chinese decided to resist leading to british march on peking
-Terms:
--british ambassador was to reside in Peking
--had to have passports to travel
--new treaty ports opened

1858 - ended the second opium war
Prince Gong
-Powerful member of council of Princes
-Named as negotiator when british marched peking
-reaffirmed terms of tianjin treaty
Rehel (Jehol)
location of summer palace in Peking
Convention of Peking (Beijing) 1860
emperor promised 8 million taels in indemnity, permitted chinese emigration on british ships, made tianjin itself a treaty port, and ceded part of the mainland kowloon peninsula to hong kong
Kowloon
peninsula ceded to hong kong in convention of peking