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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
distance curve
plots the average size of a sample of children at each age
velocity curve
plots the average amount of growth at each yearly interval
skeletal age
a measure of development of bones in the body
epiphyses
special growth centers in the bones
pituitary gland
located at the base of the brain near the hypothalamus, secretes the most important hormones for human growth
hypothalamus
the part of the brain that initiates and regulates pituitary secretions
growth hormone (GH)
the only pituitary secretion produced continuously throughout life; affects development of all tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals
thyroine
hormone necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size; secreted by the thyroid gland
estrogens and androgens
sex hormones (men and women both have each)
secular trends in physical growth
changes in body size and rate of growth from one generation to the next
general growth curve
rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth again during adolescence
neurons
nerve cells that store and transmit information
synapses
tiny gaps between neurons
neurotransmitters
chemicals released by neurons to send messages to one another; cross synapses
programmed cell-death
death of many surrounding neurons as neural fibers and their synapses increase rapidly, which makes room for these connective structures
synaptic pruning
neurons that are seldom stimulated lose their synapses
myelination
the coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath (called myelin)that improves the efficiency of message transfer
lateralization
specialization of the two brain hemispheres
cerebellum
a structure that aids in balance and control of body movement (at the rear and base of the brain)
reticular formation
a structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness
corpus callosum
a large bundle of fibers that connects the two cortical hemispheres
catch-up growth
a return to a genetically influenced growth path once conditions improve
marasmus
a wasted condition of the body caused b a diet low in all essential nutrients; usually appears in the first year of lie when a baby's mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle-feeding is also inadequate
kwashiorkor
caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein. The disease usually strikes after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age
obesity
a body weight greater than 20% over the average for the child's age, sex, and physical build
nonorganic failure to thrive
a growth disorder that results from lack of parental love, is usually present by 18 months of age. Infants who have it show all the signs of marasmus- their bodies look wasted, and they are withdrawn and apathetic. But no organic (biological) cause for the baby's failure to grow can be found
pyscho-social dwarfism
a growth disorder that usually appears between 2 and 15 years of age; extreme emotional deprivation can interfere with the production of GH
puberty
young people attain an adult-sized body and become capable of producing offspring
primary sexual characteristics
physical features that involve the reproductive organs
secondary sexual characteristics
features visible on the outside of the body that serve as signs of sexual maturity but do not involve the reproductve organs (for example, breast development and appearance of pubic and underarm hair)
menarche
the scientific name for first menstruation
spermarche
scientific name for first ejaculation
body image
conception of and attitude toward your physical appearance
anorexia nervosa
a tragic eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
bulimia nervosa
young people engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eatin, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives