Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/103

Click to flip

103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hypothesis
testable prediction
theory
overarching set of assumptions and explanations which helps to guide research (can be right or wrong)
two tailed hypothesis
predict that the two variables are going to differ
one tailed hypothesis
predict the direction of results
operational definitions
measurable behaviors used, for the purposes of that experiment, to define some concept/ variable
random sampling
every person in population has an equal chance of being chosen
naturalistic observation
1. Natural setting
2. non intervention
3. systematic observation
case study
intensive study of one or several subjects
survey/self report
set of questions asked verbally or written
correlational research
assesses the relationship between two or more variables
correlational coefficient
shows strength of correlation
direction of relationship
sign (positive or negative)
experimental research
can make cause/effect, because isolation of causal variables
independent variable
what experimenter manipulates
dependent variable
behavior that is being measured as a function of the independent variable
subject variable
traits that subject brings to experiment ex. sex, birth
confounding variable
variables which, because of poor research design or insufficient control, may alter results
counterbalancing
order of conditions to eliminate practice and fatigue effects
field experiments
same as lab, but conducted in natural setting
quasi-experimental research
cannot manipulate "independent" variable because of ethical or practical concerns
longitudinal research
same subjects over period of time
cross-sectional research
different age groups are compared on same behavior
cohorts
different age groups
sequential research
combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional techniques used
chromosomes
"colored bodies" carrying genetic material
genes
multiple per chromosome, most lead to production of some protein
DNA
molecules that carry all the biochemical instructions involved in the formation and functioning of an organism
nucleotides
nitrogen based molecules attached to the ladder rungs of DNA
alleles
different forms/versions of each gene
karyotype
depicts homologous pairs
mitosis
process by which DNA duplicates
meiosis
process by which gametes, or sex cells, are formed
crossing over
pairs of chromosomes exchange corresponding segments to create new genetic combinations
gametes
sex cells (egg, sperm), contain only 23 chromosomes each
dominant traits
supercede expression of recessive traits
recessive traits
exhibited only when ingerit two alleles
polygenic inheritance
more than one gene influences expression of a trait, such as intelligence and height
phenotype
one's EXPRESSION of a trait
genotype
one's genetic inheritance
PKU
lack the ability for the liver to produce the enzyme phenylalanine hydrodxylase, that converts an amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine
galactosemia
lack enzyme to convert galactose into glucose
cystic fibrosis
respiratory tract becomes clogged with mucus, increases risk of infection
fragile x syndrome
genetic disorder resulting in multiplication of part of gentic code, resulting in a "pinced" long leg on the x-chromosome
Downs syndrome
trisomy in chrosome 21 (too much genetic info)
edwards syndrome
trisomy 18, severe mental retardation, elfin facial features, hearing loss, seizures, gypoglycemia
Patau syndrome
trisomy 13, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart defects, polydactyl; severe mental retardation, high mortality rate in 1st year
Cri-du-chat
missing short arm of chromosome 5, catlike cry, congenital heart disease, sever mental retardation, may be missing kidneys, sensitivity to loud noises, low birth weight, partial webbing of fingers or toes
turner's syndrome
females where one x chromosome (or part of it) is missing, ovaries do not develop prenatally, girls maintain immature appearance
klinefelters syndrome
XXY males, absense of development of male secondary sex characteristics
triple screen test
maternal blood test- measures alpha feta protein, estriol, hCG, and inhibin A
ultrasound
high frequency sound waves are beamed into uterus, and their reflection reveals size, shape and position of fetus
chorion
fetal membrane that will form the fetal side of placenta
chorionic villa sampling
tissue sample is removed from chorion by pushing narrow needle in 15-20 times
amniocentisis
fetal cells are extracted from amniotic fluid and cultured for chromosome/genetic analysis
fetoscopy
miniature telescope-like instrument w/light and lenses inserted into tiny incision into amniotic sac
hereditability
refers to the extent that individual differencces can be accounted for genetically
canalization
the degree to which a trait is constrained by genetics
range-of-reaction
games set boundaries and establish a range of reactions, because of different genotypes, individuals will respond differently to the same environment
niche-picking
genotype contributes propensities toward certain skills and abilities, and we then seek activities which are compatible with out genetic endowment
passive gene environment interaction
when parents set up an environment consistent with their (and their childs) predispositions
evocative gene-environment interaction
when a child's traits influence the behavior of those around him/her
Thalidomide
developed in Germany in 60s, first as an anticonvulsive drug, then as a
tranquilizer, blocks growth of blood vessels, esp.to parts of body undergoing rapid
growth
alcohol
crosses placenta; equal concentration in fetal blood
fetal alcohol syndrome
microencephaly & mental retardation
facial deformities
low birth weight
disturbances in placental functioning
marijuana
--fat-soluble; crosses placenta & stored in amniotic fluid
--low birth weight
early exposure increases miscarriage;
late exposure may cause prematurity;
decreased immune system function
lower cognitive functioning
cocaine
crosses placenta

--microencephaly & brain damage
low birth weight
increased risk of STROKE (+ in utero)
miscarriage; placenta abruptio
kidney & urogenital malformations

--40 times more likely to die in first month after birth
heroin/morphine
low birth weight
prematurity
respiratory problems
infections

--high infant mortality rate shrill cry
DES
synthetic estrogen prescribed 40s-70s to prevent miscarriages

--increased risk of rare vaginal cancer & vaginal, cervix malformations in
daughter; increased risk of testicular cancer in sons
Rubella
German measles
--eyes (cataracts), ears, heart, & CNS most affected
Toxoplasmosis
--caused by parasite gondhi, in cat feces or undercooked meat
ear, heart, eye, CNS defects
jaundice
neuromuscular abnormalities
Rh incompatibility
--problem when mother is Rh- and fetus is Rh+ (especially for
pregnancies after the first)
herpes
--risk is greatest if infant passes through canal in which mother has
active sores
--can lead to serious inflammation of brain & spinal cord
AIDs
--risk greatest during delivery & during breast-feeding
--boxlike forehead & facial deformities brain abnormalities
Gonorrhea/Syphilis
all infants treated with silver nitrate drops to prevent blindness
radiation
-causes genetic mutations, spontaneous abortions, & structural
abnormalities
mercury
“Mad Hatter’s disease”

-brain damage
PCBs
environmental pollutants which are fat soluble, cross placenta, and
passed through breast milk.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
virus in herpes group; up to 90% of children in day cares have had
exposure
microencephaly & retardation
jaundice
skin & dental disorders
deafness
oxytocin
induces uterine contractions
follicle
egg cell and supporting cells
vernix
A greasy white substance coats and protects the baby's skin in utero.
APGAR scale
measurement of a newborn's response to birth and life outside the womb.
labor
Regular contractions of the uterus that result in dilation and effacement of the cervix.
moro reflex
elicited by placing an infant on his back. Support the upper body weight of the supine infant by the arms (not lifting the infant off the surface) then release the arms suddenly. The infant responds by throwing the arms outward, clenching the fist, appearing startled, then relaxing back to a normal rest position.
rooting reflex
elicited by stroking the cheek. The infant will turn toward the side that was stroked and begin to make sucking motions with its mouth.
grasp reflex
elicited by placing a finger on the infant's open palm. The hand will close around the finger. Attempting to remove the finger causes the grip to tighten
Babinski reflex
great toe flexes toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked
stepping reflex
demonstrated by holding the baby in an upright position on a flat surface he or she will lift one leg in the air, then step with the other foot and "walk"
swimming reflex
If an infant is placed in water on his tummy, his legs and arms will move in a swimming motion.
cephalocaudal principle
growth begins at the head and moves downward
proximodistal principle
internal organs develop faster than
extremities
catch up growth
immediate growth acceleration with an abnormally high velocity, followed by a progressive deceleration till the original or normal growth channel is reached.
lagging-down growth
growth is slow to compensate for a previous growth excess.
kwashiorkor
form of malnutrition caused by inadequate protein intake in the presence of fair to good energy (total calories) intake
marasmus
childhood nutritional disorder characterised by calorie deficiency and energy deficiency.
neuron
Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves,
axon
The usually long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
dendrite
branched protoplasmic extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses from adjacent cells inward toward the cell body
cell body
The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
synapse
The junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell
myelin sheath
The insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses
myelination
The process of forming a myelin sheath.
corpus callosum
The arched bridge of nervous tissue that connects the two cerebral hemispheres, allowing communication between the right and left sides of the brain.